Über die Indikatoren der Migrationspolitik
Über die Indikatoren der Migrationspolitik
Die Rechte der Migrantinnen und Migranten
Die Rechte der Migrantinnen und Migranten

Indikatoren in dieser Dimension analysieren, inwieweit Migrantinnen und Migranten hinsichtlich des Zugangs zu grundlegenden sozialen Diensten wie Gesundheit, Bildung und soziale Sicherheit den gleichen Status wie Bürgerinnen und Bürger haben. Es beschreibt die Rechte von Migrantinnen und Migranten auf Familienzusammenführung, Arbeit, Aufenthalt und Staatsbürgerschaft. Die Ratifizierung der wichtigsten internationalen Konventionen fällt ebenfalls in diesen Bereich.main.

Ganzer Regierungsansatz
Ganzer Regierungsansatz

Indikatoren in dieser Dimension bewerten die institutionellen, rechtlichen und regulatorischen Rahmenbedingungen der Länder im Zusammenhang mit Migrationspolitik. Dimension 2 beinhaltet auch das Vorhandensein von nationalen Migrationsstrategien, die mit Entwicklungspolitik und -ansätzen im Einklang stehen, sowie die institutionelle Transparenz und Kohärenz in Bezug auf Migrationsmanagement. In diesem Bereich wird auch untersucht, inwieweit Regierungen Migrationsdaten erheben und verwenden.

Partnerschaften
Partnerschaften

Diese Dimension konzentriert sich auf die Bemühungen von Ländern, in migrationsbezogenen Fragen mit anderen Staaten und einschlägigen nichstaatlichen Akteuren, einschließlich Organisationen der Zivilgesellschaft und des Privatsektors, zusammenzuarbeiten. Kooperation kann zu Verbesserungen der Regierungsführung führen, indem Standards angeglichen und angehoben, der Dialog intensiviert und Strukturen der Bewältigung von Herausforderungen geschaffen werden. 

Das Wohlergehen der Migrantinnen und Migranten
Das Wohlergehen der Migrantinnen und Migranten

Diese Dimension umfasst Indikatoren für die Politik der Länder zur Steuerung des sozioökonomischen Wohlergehens von Migrantinnen und Migranten, z.B. die Anerkennung der Bildungs- und Berufsqualifikationen von Migrantinnen und Migranten, Bestimmungen zur Regelung der Studentenmigration und das Bestehen bilateraler Arbeitsabkommen zwischen Ländern. Die Indikatoren konzentrieren sich gleichermaßen auf Maßnahmen und Strategien im Zusammenhang mit dem Engagement der Diasporamitglieder und den grenzüberschreitenden Geldtransfers von Migrantinnen und Migranten

Mobilitätsdimensionen von Krisen
Mobilitätsdimensionen von Krisen

Diese Dimension befasst sich mit der Art und dem Grad der Bereitschaft von Ländern, wenn sie mit Mobilitätsdimensionen von Krisen konfrontiert sind, die entweder mit Katastrophen, der Umwelt und/oder Konflikten zusammenhängen. Die Fragen werden verwendet, um die Prozesse für Staatsangehörige und Ausländer sowohl während als auch Katastrophen zu ermitteln, einschließlich der Frage, ob humanitäre Hilfe für Migrantinnen und Migranten genauso verfügbar ist wir für Bürgerinnen und Bürger. 

Sichere, geordnete und reguläre Migration
Sichere, geordnete und reguläre Migration

Diese Dimension analysiert den Ansatz der Länder zum Migrationsmanagement bezüglich Grenzkontroll- und Grenzschutzmaßnahmen, Zulassungsvoraussetzungen für Migranten, Vorbereitung und Flexibilität bei erheblichen und unerwarteten Wanderungsbewegungen sowie die Bekämpfung des Menschenhandels und des Menschenschmuggels von Migrantinnen und Migranten. Es werden auch die Bemühungen und Anreize zur Unterstützung der Integration der zurückkehrenden Staatsbürgerinnen und -burger bewertet. 

Key findings
INTRODUCTION

This country profile describes examples of well-developed areas of the Republic of El Salvador’s (hereafter referred to as El Salvador) migration governance structures and areas with potential for further development, as evaluated by the six domains of the Migration Governance Indicators (MGI). These address migrants’ rights, a “whole-of-government” approach, partnerships, socioeconomic well-being of migrants, the mobility dimensions of crises, and safe and orderly migration.

Click the icons on the wheel to explore the key findings.

The Migration Governance Indicators (MGI) initiative is a policy-benchmarking programme led by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and implemented with the support of the Economist Intelligence Unit. Funding is provided by the Government of Sweden.

Key findings
1. MIGRANTS' RIGHTS

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • All migrants have universal access to basic health services, regardless of legal status.
  • Once permanent residence has been obtained, the formalities for naturalization can begin after five years of residency in the country.
  • Family reunification is possible for all migrants with permanent and temporary residence permits.

Areas with potential for further development:

  • Only migrants who have a work permit or a long-term residence permit are entitled to social security.
  • Migrants do not have immediate access to the formal labour market, because some requirements must be met in order to apply for a work permit. These requirements include having a job offer in the country and evidence that local workers are not being displaced.
  • Migrants are not allowed to vote in municipal elections.
Key findings
2. WHOLE-OF-GOVERNMENT APPROACH

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • El Salvador has organized well structured migration governance framework
  • The National Policy for the Protection and Development of Salvadoran Migrants and their Families, adopted in July 2017, is the main instrument in the country’s emigration governance
  • The National Council for the Protection and Development of Migrants and their Families (CONMIGRANTES) is an inter-institutional body whose purpose is to serve as a link between the different governmental institutions, reinforcing the horizontal coherence of El Salvador’s migration policy.

Areas with potential for further development:

  • Development plans address the topic of emigration. However, they do not include topics related to immigration.
Key findings
3. PARTNERSHIPS

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • El Salvador takes part in regional consultation processes on migration such as the Regional Conference on Migration (RCM).
  • Along with Honduras, Guatemala and Nicaragua, El Salvador is member of the inter-regional freedom of mobility agreement, the Central America-4 Border Control Agreement (CA-4). The Agreement for the Creation of a Single Central American Visa for the Free Movement of Aliens in the Region has also allowed free movement of migrants within these four member states.
  • El Salvador has signed bilateral agreements with other countries on migration and human mobility. It also participates in formal negotiations with countries of origin and destination of migration movements.  

Areas with potential for further development:

  • The Government’s efforts to promote coordination with the private sector and its inclusion in the development of migration policy should be recognized.
  • The government also plans to promote the representation of associations of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), a challenge that is yet to be taken up. 
Key findings
4. WELL-BEING OF MIGRANTS

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • El Salvador has signed formal bilateral labor agreements with the goal of managing migration governance and migration flows.
  • The National Policy for the Protection and Development of Salvadoran Migrants and their Families of 2017 includes lines of action aimed at providing a free legal advice service to migrants abroad, and ensuring the follow-up of deportation cases.
  • The Social Housing Fund (FSV) has a programme that facilitates access to remittance-backed mortgage loans for Salvadorans living abroad.

Areas with potential for further development:

  • The development of formal mechanisms that allow the monitoring of the effects of migration on the labour market could be considered. Similarly, programmes that facilitate the granting of residence permits based on specific job skills could be developed and implemented.
  • The insertion of foreign student in the labour market once the studies have been completed could be facilitated and promoted.
Key findings
5. MOBILITY DIMENSIONS OF CRISES

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • The Government of El Salvador has mechanisms for assisting its citizens in situations of crisis abroad. For instance, 18 consulates have been opened in the United States. Consular services provided on United States territory include: legal assistance, food allowances for families in need, and repatriation of Salvadoran citizens in vulnerable situations.

Areas with potential for further development:

  • Strategies for disaster management and recovery after crises could address the issue of migration.
  • The five-year development plans could include strategies to support people who must migrate due to insecurity, and components for the provision of humanitarian assistance to the immigrant population.
Key findings
6. SAFE, ORDERLY and REGULAR MIGRATION

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • El Salvador has a governance body, the General Directorate of Migration and Immigration (DGME), which assumes full responsibility for border control and security. The staff of the DGME regularly receives training on multiple topics that are relevant to their activities.
  • There are various government programmes in El Salvador that focus on facilitating the reintegration of returning migrants. For instance, “El Salvador es tu casa” (El Salvador is your home) is an initiative that seeks to enhance academic, employment and entrepreneurial opportunities for the benefit of Salvadorans who return to their country.

Areas with potential for further development:

  • Progress in buttressing the institutional and regulatory framework relating to human trafficking in El Salvador could include the regular publication of statistics on the fight against sexual and commercial exploitation, as well as human trafficking and smuggling.

2018 May

Migration Governance Profile: Republic of El Salvador