Über die Indikatoren der Migrationspolitik
Über die Indikatoren der Migrationspolitik
Die Rechte der Migrantinnen und Migranten
Die Rechte der Migrantinnen und Migranten

Indikatoren in dieser Dimension analysieren, inwieweit Migrantinnen und Migranten hinsichtlich des Zugangs zu grundlegenden sozialen Diensten wie Gesundheit, Bildung und soziale Sicherheit den gleichen Status wie Bürgerinnen und Bürger haben. Es beschreibt die Rechte von Migrantinnen und Migranten auf Familienzusammenführung, Arbeit, Aufenthalt und Staatsbürgerschaft. Die Ratifizierung der wichtigsten internationalen Konventionen fällt ebenfalls in diesen Bereich.main.

Ganzer Regierungsansatz
Ganzer Regierungsansatz

Indikatoren in dieser Dimension bewerten die institutionellen, rechtlichen und regulatorischen Rahmenbedingungen der Länder im Zusammenhang mit Migrationspolitik. Dimension 2 beinhaltet auch das Vorhandensein von nationalen Migrationsstrategien, die mit Entwicklungspolitik und -ansätzen im Einklang stehen, sowie die institutionelle Transparenz und Kohärenz in Bezug auf Migrationsmanagement. In diesem Bereich wird auch untersucht, inwieweit Regierungen Migrationsdaten erheben und verwenden.

Partnerschaften
Partnerschaften

Diese Dimension konzentriert sich auf die Bemühungen von Ländern, in migrationsbezogenen Fragen mit anderen Staaten und einschlägigen nichstaatlichen Akteuren, einschließlich Organisationen der Zivilgesellschaft und des Privatsektors, zusammenzuarbeiten. Kooperation kann zu Verbesserungen der Regierungsführung führen, indem Standards angeglichen und angehoben, der Dialog intensiviert und Strukturen der Bewältigung von Herausforderungen geschaffen werden. 

Das Wohlergehen der Migrantinnen und Migranten
Das Wohlergehen der Migrantinnen und Migranten

Diese Dimension umfasst Indikatoren für die Politik der Länder zur Steuerung des sozioökonomischen Wohlergehens von Migrantinnen und Migranten, z.B. die Anerkennung der Bildungs- und Berufsqualifikationen von Migrantinnen und Migranten, Bestimmungen zur Regelung der Studentenmigration und das Bestehen bilateraler Arbeitsabkommen zwischen Ländern. Die Indikatoren konzentrieren sich gleichermaßen auf Maßnahmen und Strategien im Zusammenhang mit dem Engagement der Diasporamitglieder und den grenzüberschreitenden Geldtransfers von Migrantinnen und Migranten

Mobilitätsdimensionen von Krisen
Mobilitätsdimensionen von Krisen

Diese Dimension befasst sich mit der Art und dem Grad der Bereitschaft von Ländern, wenn sie mit Mobilitätsdimensionen von Krisen konfrontiert sind, die entweder mit Katastrophen, der Umwelt und/oder Konflikten zusammenhängen. Die Fragen werden verwendet, um die Prozesse für Staatsangehörige und Ausländer sowohl während als auch Katastrophen zu ermitteln, einschließlich der Frage, ob humanitäre Hilfe für Migrantinnen und Migranten genauso verfügbar ist wir für Bürgerinnen und Bürger. 

Sichere, geordnete und reguläre Migration
Sichere, geordnete und reguläre Migration

Diese Dimension analysiert den Ansatz der Länder zum Migrationsmanagement bezüglich Grenzkontroll- und Grenzschutzmaßnahmen, Zulassungsvoraussetzungen für Migranten, Vorbereitung und Flexibilität bei erheblichen und unerwarteten Wanderungsbewegungen sowie die Bekämpfung des Menschenhandels und des Menschenschmuggels von Migrantinnen und Migranten. Es werden auch die Bemühungen und Anreize zur Unterstützung der Integration der zurückkehrenden Staatsbürgerinnen und -burger bewertet. 

Key findings
INTRODUCTION

This country profile describes examples of well-developed areas of the Republic of Guatemala’s (hereafter referred to as Guatemala) migration governance structures and areas with potential for further development, as evaluated by the six domains of the Migration Governance Indicators (MGI). These address migrants’ rights, a “whole-of-government” approach, partnerships, socioeconomic well-being of migrants, the mobility dimensions of crises, and safe and orderly migration. 

Click the icons on the wheel to explore the key findings 

The Migration Governance Indicators (MGI) initiative is a policy-benchmarking programme led by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and implemented with the support of the Economist Intelligence Unit. Funding is provided by IOM Member States. 

Key findings
MigRANTS’ RIGHTS

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas: 

  • In Guatemala immigrants have access to basic public services such as education, healthcare and security, on an equal footing with Guatemalan nationals.  

  • A person with temporary resident status may obtain permanent residency after living in Guatemala and demonstrating to the immigration authorities that their situation is stable.  

  • To obtain citizenship, immigrants must first obtain “domiciled alien” status after two years of legal residence in Guatemala, or if they have Guatemalan children or parents, or are married to a Guatemalan national. 

  • Applicants from non-Central American countries must hold the "domiciled alien" status for five or more years in order to obtain citizenship. Spanish nationals are an exception to this, as they are treated in the same way as Central American citizens in virtue of a signed agreement.  For persons from Central America  a period of three years’ residence in the country is required. 

Areas with potential for further development:  

  • Only two types of residence permits allow access to the job market: employment may be sought only in specific cases of being married to a Guatemalan national or having a Guatemalan child.  

  • Article 13 of the Labour Code prohibits companies from employing more than 10 per cent of immigrants and from paying them more than 15 per cent of their respective total wage bills.  

  • Although the Migration Code contains the concept of family reunification, cases are currently being handled on an ad hoc basis.  

  • No pension portability agreements have been signed with other countries.  

  • The right to vote in local elections is reserved for citizens of Guatemala.

Key findings
WHOLE-OF-GOVERNMENT APPROACH

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas: 

  • In 2016, the Congress of Guatemala adopted the Migration Code, which addresses the rights and duties of migrants. 

  • The Ministry of the Interior is responsible for formulating the country’s migration policy. The General Directorate of Migration (DGM) is a branch of the Ministry of Interior and is charged with implementing migration policy.  

  • The Migration Code establishes interinstitutional coordination bodies such as the National Migration Authority (AMN), which is tasked with formulating, creating and overseeing migration policy and migration-related security.  

  • There are institutions in Guatemala that assist nationals residing abroad (embassies, consulates, labour attachés, ministries/offices for diaspora issues).  

  • The DGM has a web portal that periodically publishes figures on the number of persons returning by air and land, breaking down adults, children and adolescents by gender. In addition, the 2002 census included five questions on migration. The 2018 census likewise includes a module on migration.  

Areas with potential for further development:  

  • The recent Migration Code has not been operationalized. 

  • There are no formal programmes for working with Guatemalans in the diaspora. 

Key findings
PARTNERSHIPS

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas: 

  • Guatemala participates in several Regional Consultative Processes on Migration (RCPs).  

  • The country is a member of the Regional Conference on Migration or Puebla Process (RCM), and participates in the Central American Commission of Directors of Migration (OCAM).  

  • Guatemala is participant in the Global Forum on Migration and Development (GFMD), inter alia.  

  • The Governments of Mexico and Guatemala have signed over 40 agreements and memorandums of understanding, a reflection of the rapid evolution of their relations and the commitment of both countries to strengthening cooperation.  

  • The Government is working formally with the private sector and civil society in getting to grips with migration issues.  

  • There are initiatives such as the “GUATE TE INCLUYE” (Guatemala includes you) programme, an interinstitutional and intersectoral coordination initiative designed to ensure the participation of all stakeholders, thereby social and job market inclusion for returning migrants.  

Areas with potential for further development:  

  • There are agreements such as the CA4 on the free movement of aliens, as well as customs agreements in place between Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador, but so far none has addressed the topic of labour mobility. 

  • Guatemala does not yet form part of the governing body of the International Organization for Migration (IOM).  

  • There are no forums for formal collaboration with members of the diaspora and expatriate communities for devising migration programmes and implanting migration policy. 

Key findings
WELL-BEING OF MIGRANTS

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas:  

  • The Migration Code guarantees that all persons present on the national territory will enjoy equal access to public employment services. The Code also lays down the minimum social rights and entitlements in terms of security, assets, and properties for everyone, irrespective of migration status.  

  • Guatemala allows unrestricted and equal access to primary and secondary education for international students.  

  • Guatemala has formally adopted accreditation criteria for the recognition of foreign qualifications.  

  • In the case of the Directorate-General for Extracurricular Education (DIGEEX), when distance learning or virtual courses are involved, the place of study must be certified and the relevant documents must be apostilled. DIGEEX also recognizes education and training acquired in other countries, provided that verification is possible. 

Areas with potential for further development:  

  • Guatemala compiles information on the labour market broken down by migration status, but the data are not published online.  

  • Demand for immigrant workers is not monitored in Guatemala. Likewise, Guatemala does not have different types of visas for attracting persons with specific professional skills nor has there been any national evaluation to gauge the effects of outmigration on the domestic labour market.  

  • There are no specific measures to promote gender equality for immigrants on the job market.  

  • There are no provisions or regulations allowing or forbidding students to work during their studies.  

  • There is no government scheme that actively encourages the sending of remittances.  

Key findings
MOBILITY DIMENSION OF CRISES

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas: 

  • The Government has an emergency plan for managing large movements of people in times of crisis.  

  • The country has communication systems for receiving information regarding the evolution of a crisis, communicating the needs of the population and providing information on ways of accessing assistance.  

  • The Government has arrangements in place to assist Guatemalan nationals abroad in times of crises (through consular assistance).  

  • The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has furthermore instructed its consular and diplomatic missions accredited abroad to draw up contingency plans to serve as action guidelines for the protection of the migrant Guatemalan population in crisis situations. 

Areas with potential for further development:  

  • The Disaster Response Strategy (PNR) in place does not contain provisions addressing migration and displacement issues.   

  • Guatemala has no strategies for dealing with migration flows triggered by the adverse effects of environmental degradation or climate change, nor are there any reports published on climate change adaptation plans.  

  • The national development policy “K’atun Nuestra Guatemala 2032" (K'atun 2032 National Development Plan) does not address measures relating to displacement.

Key findings
SAFE, ORDERLY AND DIGNIFIED MIGRATION

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas: 

  • The Guatemalan Migration Institute is responsible for controlling, and for verifying and ensuring that nationals and immigrants are able to enter, remain on, as well as exit Guatemalan territory. 

  • The Guatemalan Government has a website operated by the General Directorate of Migration (DGM), which lays out residency and visa options in a clear and easily understandable manner. 

  • The Guatemalan Government has improved its systems for receiving returnees, whether adults, children or adolescents. As pertains to reintegration, the Returned Migrants Entrepreneurship Programme helps returnees find employment.  

  • The Secretariat against Sexual Violence, Exploitation and Trafficking of Persons (SVET) is Guatemala’s steering, coordinating and advisory body in matters of prevention, attention, prosecution and punishment of the crimes of sexual violence, exploitation and human trafficking. In the framework of the Inter-Agency Commission against Trafficking in Persons (CIT), the SVET compiles statistical information regarding preventive action as well as the care and repatriation of victims of human trafficking.  

Areas with potential for further development:  

  • Much remains to be done with respect to reintegration of returnees in the territories.  

  • There is no official programme or special government policy in Guatemala designed to attract people who have emigrated by encouraging them to return voluntarily.

2018 August

Migration Governance Profile: Republic of Guatemala