Über die Indikatoren der Migrationspolitik
Über die Indikatoren der Migrationspolitik
Die Rechte der Migrantinnen und Migranten
Die Rechte der Migrantinnen und Migranten

Indikatoren in dieser Dimension analysieren, inwieweit Migrantinnen und Migranten hinsichtlich des Zugangs zu grundlegenden sozialen Diensten wie Gesundheit, Bildung und soziale Sicherheit den gleichen Status wie Bürgerinnen und Bürger haben. Es beschreibt die Rechte von Migrantinnen und Migranten auf Familienzusammenführung, Arbeit, Aufenthalt und Staatsbürgerschaft. Die Ratifizierung der wichtigsten internationalen Konventionen fällt ebenfalls in diesen Bereich.main.

Ganzer Regierungsansatz
Ganzer Regierungsansatz

Indikatoren in dieser Dimension bewerten die institutionellen, rechtlichen und regulatorischen Rahmenbedingungen der Länder im Zusammenhang mit Migrationspolitik. Dimension 2 beinhaltet auch das Vorhandensein von nationalen Migrationsstrategien, die mit Entwicklungspolitik und -ansätzen im Einklang stehen, sowie die institutionelle Transparenz und Kohärenz in Bezug auf Migrationsmanagement. In diesem Bereich wird auch untersucht, inwieweit Regierungen Migrationsdaten erheben und verwenden.

Partnerschaften
Partnerschaften

Diese Dimension konzentriert sich auf die Bemühungen von Ländern, in migrationsbezogenen Fragen mit anderen Staaten und einschlägigen nichstaatlichen Akteuren, einschließlich Organisationen der Zivilgesellschaft und des Privatsektors, zusammenzuarbeiten. Kooperation kann zu Verbesserungen der Regierungsführung führen, indem Standards angeglichen und angehoben, der Dialog intensiviert und Strukturen der Bewältigung von Herausforderungen geschaffen werden. 

Das Wohlergehen der Migrantinnen und Migranten
Das Wohlergehen der Migrantinnen und Migranten

Diese Dimension umfasst Indikatoren für die Politik der Länder zur Steuerung des sozioökonomischen Wohlergehens von Migrantinnen und Migranten, z.B. die Anerkennung der Bildungs- und Berufsqualifikationen von Migrantinnen und Migranten, Bestimmungen zur Regelung der Studentenmigration und das Bestehen bilateraler Arbeitsabkommen zwischen Ländern. Die Indikatoren konzentrieren sich gleichermaßen auf Maßnahmen und Strategien im Zusammenhang mit dem Engagement der Diasporamitglieder und den grenzüberschreitenden Geldtransfers von Migrantinnen und Migranten

Mobilitätsdimensionen von Krisen
Mobilitätsdimensionen von Krisen

Diese Dimension befasst sich mit der Art und dem Grad der Bereitschaft von Ländern, wenn sie mit Mobilitätsdimensionen von Krisen konfrontiert sind, die entweder mit Katastrophen, der Umwelt und/oder Konflikten zusammenhängen. Die Fragen werden verwendet, um die Prozesse für Staatsangehörige und Ausländer sowohl während als auch Katastrophen zu ermitteln, einschließlich der Frage, ob humanitäre Hilfe für Migrantinnen und Migranten genauso verfügbar ist wir für Bürgerinnen und Bürger. 

Sichere, geordnete und reguläre Migration
Sichere, geordnete und reguläre Migration

Diese Dimension analysiert den Ansatz der Länder zum Migrationsmanagement bezüglich Grenzkontroll- und Grenzschutzmaßnahmen, Zulassungsvoraussetzungen für Migranten, Vorbereitung und Flexibilität bei erheblichen und unerwarteten Wanderungsbewegungen sowie die Bekämpfung des Menschenhandels und des Menschenschmuggels von Migrantinnen und Migranten. Es werden auch die Bemühungen und Anreize zur Unterstützung der Integration der zurückkehrenden Staatsbürgerinnen und -burger bewertet. 

Key findings
Introduction

This country profile describes the well-developed areas of the Republic of Kazakhstan’s (hereafter Kazakhstan) migration governance structures and areas with potential for further development, as evaluated by the six domains of the Migration Governance Indicators (MGI). These address migrants’ rights, a “whole-of-government” approach, partnerships, socioeconomic well-being of migrants, the mobility dimensions of crises, and safe and orderly migration.  

Click the icons on the wheel to explore the key findings.

The Migration Governance Indicators (MGI) initiative is a policy-benchmarking programme led by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and implemented with the support of the Economist Intelligence Unit. Funding is provided by the Government of Sweden.

Key findings
Domain 1. Adherence to international standards and fulfilment of migrants' rights

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • Immigrants are guaranteed access to preschool, primary, and secondary education in public educational institutions.
  • Regular immigrants and stateless persons in Kazakhstan have the right to free medical assistance (GAFMA) in the case of acute diseases listed by the Government, unless otherwise stipulated by international agreements. 
  • There is a favourable framework for achieving long-term residency. 
  • The law on Migration of the Republic of Kazakhstan (2011) includes a family reunification procedure for permanent residents and immigrants who own a business in Kazakhstan. 
  • Since 2014 state-funded social services are available to repatriated Kazakhs, stateless persons, and foreign citizens who were victims of trafficking in the country. 

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Irregular and undocumented migrants do now have access to the health-care system beyond emergency treatment. 
  • Migrant workers are not covered by the law “On the Mandatory Social Insurance”, and are not entitled to receive social allowances. 
  • Migrants’ right to work is somewhat restricted, as they may be barred from certain labour activities.
Key findings
Domain 2: Whole of government approach

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • Kazakhstan has a set of government structures in place responsible for formulating and implementing migration policies. 
  • The country offers a coherent legal framework for migration, based on the 2011 Law on Migration. It regulates immigration, defines categories of migrants, and lays out specific immigration procedures. 
  • Kazakhstan also has agencies specifically collecting data on migration, including the Committee on Statistics, the Ministry of Interior, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Social Protection. 

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Since Kazakhstan is primarily a country of immigration, it does not currently have national legislation governing emigration. 
  • Policy coherence between different government entities could be strengthened. 
  • National mechanisms for the protection of migrants’ rights can be developed further. 
Key findings
Domain 3: Partnerships

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • Kazakhstan is a participant of the Global Forum on Migration and Development (GFMD). It is also a member state of the IOM and is actively involved in IOM-led activities. 
  • Kazakhstan is also a member of two regional consultative processes: the Almaty and the Budapest Processes. 
  • A major development in terms of labour mobility has been Kazakhstan’s membership in the Eurasian Economic Union and access to the common labour market of the Russian Federation, Belarus, the Kyrgyz Republic and Armenia.
  • Kazakhstan also has participated in a number of agreements, including the legal act of “Labour Migration in the countries of Commonwealth Independent States (CIS)”, an Agreement between Kazakhstan and Tajikistan on Labour Activity and Social Protection of Labour Migrants. 

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Engagement of the private sector and civil society organizations in migration policymaking could be strengthened to take place more regularly.
  • Kazakhstan has neither ratified nor signed the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families; neither has it ratified the ILO Migration Employment Convention (Revised) 1949, or the ILO Migrant Workers Convention (Supplementary Provisions) 1975. 
Key findings
Domain 3: Well-being of migrants

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • The Republic of Kazakhstan guarantees the protection of the rights and freedoms of migrant workers pursuant to its Constitution, laws and international agreements.
  • Kazakhstan regulates labour immigration by economic sector and region, based on demand and input from local authorities. 
  • Kazakhstan is a party to a number of international conventions on the recognition of foreign degrees.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • There is a quota for the enrolment in universities of students of ethnic Kazakh origin who are not citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
  • Few measures to promote the ethical recruitment of migrants in Kazakhstan are in place.
Key findings
Domain 5: Mobility dimensions of crises

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • Kazakh legislation extends the right to humanitarian assistance and access to emergency services to all immigrants, regardless of their legal status. 
  • The Committee for Emergency Situations within the Ministry of Interior operates a Centre for Emergency Situations and Disaster Risk Reduction in cooperation with the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Kyrgyz Republic.
  • In cases of crisis or natural disasters, Kazakh diplomatic missions are required to assist with the evacuation of their citizens. Consuls must also provide financial assistance and support for Kazakh citizens who find themselves in difficulty abroad and need to contact their families.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • There is no specific strategy in place to provide assistance to immigrants in crisis and post-crisis situations.  
  • There are no provisions in place for handling the return of emigrants who have left the country during crisis.
Key findings
DOMAIN 6: SAFE, ORDERLY AND REGULAR MIGRATION

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas:

  • While the Kazakh Border Service Academy is responsible for training members of the border service, there is also regular training on border management as part of the European Union-funded Border Management Programme in Central Asia (BOMCA) as well as regional trainings organized by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).
  • There is an Inter-Agency Committee on Combating Trafficking in Persons, which is operated on a rotational bases by the Kazakh Ministry of Labour and Social Protection, and the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
  • Kazakhstan runs a government repatriation programme for ethnic Kazaks (Oralmans) living abroad, which includes the provision of free adaptation and integration services, such as free accommodation, language lessons and assistance with employment.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • There is a lack of clear and accessible information on the different types of visas and permits available for migrants migrating to Kazakhstan. 
  • It is not yet possible to apply for visas online. 
  • With the exception of the government funded repatriation programme for ethnic Kazakhs living abroad, Kazakhstan does not have a policy incentivizing the return of its citizens living abroad. 

2018 May

Migration Governance Profile: Republic of Kazakhstan