About the Migration Governance Indicators
About the Migration Governance Indicators
Migrants' rights
Migrants' rights

Indicators in this domain assess the extent to which migrants have the same status as citizens in terms of access to basic social services such as health, education, and social security. It also describes the rights of migrants to family reunification, to work, and to residency and citizenship. The ratification of the main international conventions is also included within this domain.

Whole of government approach
Whole of government approach

Indicators in this domain assess countries’ institutional, legal, and regulatory frameworks related to migration policies. Domain 2 also reviews the existence of national migration strategies that are in-line with development, as well as institutional transparency and coherence in relation to migration management. This domain also investigates the extent to which governments collect and use migration data.

Partnerships
Partnerships

This domain focuses on countries’ efforts to cooperate on migration-related issues with other states and with relevant non-governmental actors, including civil society organizations and the private sector. Cooperation can lead to improvements in governance by aligning and raising standards, increasing dialogue and providing structures to overcome challenges.

Well-being of migrants
Well-being of migrants

This domain includes indicators on countries’ policies for managing the socioeconomic well-being of migrants, through aspects such as the recognition of migrants’ educational and professional qualifications, provisions regulating student migration and the existence of bilateral labour agreements between countries. Indicators equally focus on policies and strategies related to diaspora engagement and migrant remittances.

Mobility dimensions of crises
Mobility dimensions of crises

This domain studies the type and level of preparedness of countries when they are faced with mobility dimensions of crises, linked to either disasters, the environment and/or conflict. The questions are used to identify the processes in place for nationals and non-nationals both during and after disasters, including whether humanitarian assistance is equally available to migrants as it is to citizens.

Safe, orderly and regular migration
Safe, orderly and regular migration

This domain analyses countries’ approach to migration management in terms of border control and enforcement policies, admission criteria for migrants, preparedness and resilience in the case of significant and unexpected migration flows, as well as the fight against trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants. It also assesses efforts and incentives to help integrate returning citizens.

Key findings
Introduction

This country Profile describes examples of well-developed areas of the Republic of Iraq’s (hereafter referred to as Iraq) migration governance structures and areas with potential for further development, as evaluated through the six domains of the Migration Governance Indicators (MGI). These address migrants’ rights, a “whole-of-government” approach, partnerships, socioeconomic well-being of migrants, the mobility dimensions of crises, and safe and orderly migration.

Click the icons on the wheel to explore the key findings.

The Migration Governance Indicators (MGI) initiative is a policy-benchmarking programme led by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and implemented with research and analysis from the Economist Intelligence Unit. Funding is provided by IOM Member States. 

Key findings
Migrants' rights

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas

  • Migrants in Iraq, depending on their migratory status, have access to government-funded health-care services equal to that of nationals.
  • Iraq grants migrants with a regular status access to government-funded free education at primary, secondary and higher levels equal to that of nationals.
  • Under the Social Protection Law, migrants who reside in Iraq permanently, continuously and lawfully have access to social protection equal to that of nationals.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • The Law on the Residence of Foreigners does not provide a path for foreign residents to obtain permanent residence permits in Iraq.
  • Migrants holding a work permit are not allowed to change jobs in the private or public sector unless both the new and former private sector employer approve the change.
Key findings
Whole of government approach

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas

  • The Ministry of Migration and Displacement provides operational support and facilitates services  for internally displaced persons (IDPs), Iraqis returning from abroad, Iraqis who have lost their citizenships and left the country, refugees and asylum seekers, in coordination with relevant government institutions.
  • The Department of Migration Affairs provides legal support to Iraqis abroad whose asylum applications have been rejected or who are migrants with an irregular status abroad, among other duties.
  • The Higher Committee for the Relief and Support of the Displaced focuses on supporting and assisting IDPs, including on resettlement.

Areas with potential for further development:

  • The national census does not include questions specifically addressing migrants in Iraq. Nevertheless, it includes questions about place of birth as well as demographic information about Iraqis abroad.
Key findings
Partnerships

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas

  • Iraq is a member of several regional consultative processes (RCPs) on migration, including the Arab Regional Consultative Process on Migration and Refugees Affairs, which addresses concerns about diaspora engagement among others. 
  • Iraq signed a memorandum of understanding with Sri Lanka that provides a legal framework for Sri Lankan skilled workers and professionals to work in Iraq.
  • Germany and Iraq reached an agreement in 2018 to facilitate the return and reintegration of Iraqis whose asylum claims were rejected in Germany.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • The Iraqi government does not formally engage with civil society, the private sector, social partners or members of diaspora and expatriate communities in agenda setting or in the implementation of migration-related issues.
Key findings
Well-being of migrants

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas

  • The Labour Law prohibits forced labour and enables the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs and workers’ associations to establish bilateral labour agreements for ethical recruitment of migrant workers.
  • The Act Promulgating the Labour Code allows migrants to maintain their residency and work permits if they change employers.
  • Iraq’s Labour Law promotes gender equality for workers in general, including migrant workers, by guaranteeing equal work opportunities and equal wages between men and women for the same type of work. 

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Iraq does not conduct a national assessment to assess labour market demand for immigrants or the effects of emigrants on the domestic labour market.
  • The Iraqi Government is not actively involved in promoting the creation of formal remittance schemes.
Key findings
Mobility dimensions of crises

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas

  • Iraq allows its nationals living abroad to register with their embassies and consulates on a voluntary basis so they can receive assistance in times of crisis. 
  • The National Development Plan 2018–2022 issued by the Ministry of Planning includes “recovery of communities affected by the displacement crisis” as one of its strategic objectives. 
  • The Real Estate Registration Law enables all foreigners who have left the country to reclaim their properties when they return to Iraq.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • The Iraqi Government does not have a formal strategy with specific measures to provide assistance to migrants, apart from refugees, during crisis and post-crisis phases in the country.
  • Iraq does not have a contingency plan to manage large-scale population movements during crises.
Key findings
Safe, orderly and regular migration

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas

  • Border staff in Iraq receive regular training on border security, human rights and document fraud detection, among others.
  • The Ministry of Migration and Displacement has policies aimed at attracting highly qualified Iraqi nationals who have migrated abroad, through customs allowances and other support.
  • Iraq’s Central Committee on Combating Human Trafficking coordinates efforts to tackle human trafficking and includes representatives from several ministries and bodies.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Iraq does not have procedures or policies to ensure the minimization of risks for migrants in transit or at the border.

2020 June

Migration Governance Profile: Republic of Iraq