About the Migration Governance Indicators
About the Migration Governance Indicators
Migrants' rights
Migrants' rights

Indicators in this domain assess the extent to which migrants have the same status as citizens in terms of access to basic social services such as health, education, and social security. It also describes the rights of migrants to family reunification, to work, and to residency and citizenship. The ratification of the main international conventions is also included within this domain.

Whole of government approach
Whole of government approach

Indicators in this domain assess countries’ institutional, legal, and regulatory frameworks related to migration policies. Domain 2 also reviews the existence of national migration strategies that are in-line with development, as well as institutional transparency and coherence in relation to migration management. This domain also investigates the extent to which governments collect and use migration data.

Partnerships
Partnerships

This domain focuses on countries’ efforts to cooperate on migration-related issues with other states and with relevant non-governmental actors, including civil society organizations and the private sector. Cooperation can lead to improvements in governance by aligning and raising standards, increasing dialogue and providing structures to overcome challenges.

Well-being of migrants
Well-being of migrants

This domain includes indicators on countries’ policies for managing the socioeconomic well-being of migrants, through aspects such as the recognition of migrants’ educational and professional qualifications, provisions regulating student migration and the existence of bilateral labour agreements between countries. Indicators equally focus on policies and strategies related to diaspora engagement and migrant remittances.

Mobility dimensions of crises
Mobility dimensions of crises

This domain studies the type and level of preparedness of countries when they are faced with mobility dimensions of crises, linked to either disasters, the environment and/or conflict. The questions are used to identify the processes in place for nationals and non-nationals both during and after disasters, including whether humanitarian assistance is equally available to migrants as it is to citizens.

Safe, orderly and regular migration
Safe, orderly and regular migration

This domain analyses countries’ approach to migration management in terms of border control and enforcement policies, admission criteria for migrants, preparedness and resilience in the case of significant and unexpected migration flows, as well as the fight against trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants. It also assesses efforts and incentives to help integrate returning citizens.

Key findings
Introduction

This country Profile describes examples of well-developed areas of The Republic of Peru’s (hereafter referred to as Peru) migration governance structures and areas with potential for further development, as evaluated through the six domains of the Migration Governance Indicators (MGI). These address migrants’ rights, a “whole-of-government” approach, partnerships, socioeconomic well-being of migrants, the mobility dimensions of crises, and safe and orderly migration.

Click the icons on the wheel to explore the key findings.

The Migration Governance Indicators (MGI) initiative is a policy-benchmarking programme led by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and implemented with research and analysis from the Economist Intelligence Unit. Funding is provided by IOM Member States. 

Key findings
Migrants' rights

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • Peru guarantees the fundamental rights of migrants, such as access to healthcare, education and work, under the same conditions as citizens.
  • The country has bilateral agreements with eight countries on the portability of social security benefits
  • All citizens of Peru residing abroad may vote in national elections at the Consular Office in their country of residence.  

Areas with potential for further development: 

•    Only certain foreign residents in Peru may vote in local elections. 

Key findings
Whole of government approach

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • The National Migration Policy promotes human rights, social inclusion, intersectoral and intragovernmental engagement and migrant protection, assistance and guidance among others. 
  • The National Migration Authority, a technical body of the Ministry of the Interior, implements internal migration policies.
  • The Permanent “Inter-sectorial Round Table for Migration Management”, chaired by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, coordinates, assesses and proposes policies and actions related to migration management.
Key findings
Partnerships

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • Peru formally cooperates with civil society organizations in the development of programmes and activities on migration. 
  • Through its consular network, the government works with the diaspora to understand their needs and involve them in the implementation of development policies. 
  • Peru has several bilateral agreements with other countries on migration matters, including on social security, the recognition of driving licenses or consular cooperation.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • The National Migration Policy does not mention formal partnerships with the private sector.
Key findings
Well-being of migrants

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • Peru has bilateral agreements with 47 countries on the mutual recognition of degrees and diplomas. 
  • The Migrant Integration Working Group promotes the integration of foreigners into Peruvian society.
  • Peru has developed formal mechanisms to protect its workers abroad, such as providing assistance to migrants in a homeless or destitute situation abroad. 

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Peru has different types of visas, but these are not structured to attract specific work skills.
  • Peru has measures in place that promote gender equality in the country, but they do not specifically address migrant workers.
Key findings
Mobility dimensions of crises

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • Peruvians abroad can register at consular missions and request assistance in times of crisis, including legal and humanitarian assistance. 
  • The Migration Act created the Humanitarian Visa category for those who have not applied for asylum through the customary process and are in a vulnerable situation. 
  • Peru has communication systems in place for the public to receive or share information on disasters and disaster risk management. 

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • The national strategy on climate change does not include guidelines to address situations of displacement.
Key findings
Safe, orderly and regular migration

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • Peru has in place a policy facilitating the reintegration of Peruvians returning to the country requiring legal, educational and health assistance among others.
  • The country has a legislative framework on combatting human trafficking and labour exploitation. 
  • Peru has procedures and policies in place to mitigate risks for migrants in transit, regardless of their migration status. 

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Peruvian migration laws do not explicitly establish detention of migrants as a last resort.

2019 December

Migration Governance Profile: The Republic of Peru