About the Migration Governance Indicators
About the Migration Governance Indicators
Migrants' rights
Migrants' rights

Indicators in this domain assess the extent to which migrants have the same status as citizens in terms of access to basic social services such as health, education, and social security. It also describes the rights of migrants to family reunification, to work, and to residency and citizenship. The ratification of the main international conventions is also included within this domain.

Whole of government approach
Whole of government approach

Indicators in this domain assess countries’ institutional, legal, and regulatory frameworks related to migration policies. Domain 2 also reviews the existence of national migration strategies that are in-line with development, as well as institutional transparency and coherence in relation to migration management. This domain also investigates the extent to which governments collect and use migration data.

Partnerships
Partnerships

This domain focuses on countries’ efforts to cooperate on migration-related issues with other states and with relevant non-governmental actors, including civil society organizations and the private sector. Cooperation can lead to improvements in governance by aligning and raising standards, increasing dialogue and providing structures to overcome challenges.

Well-being of migrants
Well-being of migrants

This domain includes indicators on countries’ policies for managing the socioeconomic well-being of migrants, through aspects such as the recognition of migrants’ educational and professional qualifications, provisions regulating student migration and the existence of bilateral labour agreements between countries. Indicators equally focus on policies and strategies related to diaspora engagement and migrant remittances.

Mobility dimensions of crises
Mobility dimensions of crises

This domain studies the type and level of preparedness of countries when they are faced with mobility dimensions of crises, linked to either disasters, the environment and/or conflict. The questions are used to identify the processes in place for nationals and non-nationals both during and after disasters, including whether humanitarian assistance is equally available to migrants as it is to citizens.

Safe, orderly and regular migration
Safe, orderly and regular migration

This domain analyses countries’ approach to migration management in terms of border control and enforcement policies, admission criteria for migrants, preparedness and resilience in the case of significant and unexpected migration flows, as well as the fight against trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants. It also assesses efforts and incentives to help integrate returning citizens.

Key findings
Introduction

This country profile describes the well-governed areas of Ukraine’s migration governance structures and areas with potential for further development, as evaluated by the six domains of the Migration Governance Indicators (MGI). These address migrants’ rights, a “whole-of-government” approach, partnerships, socioeconomic well-being of migrants, the mobility dimensions of crises, and safe and orderly migration.

Click the icons on the wheel to explore the key findings.

The Migration Governance Indicators (MGI) initiative is a policy-benchmarking programme led by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and implemented with the support of the Economist Intelligence Unit.  Funding is provided by IOM’s Member States.

Key findings
MIGRANTS' RIGHTS

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas:

  • Persons who stay in Ukraine legally, including temporary and permanent residents, have access to government-funded primary and secondary education. 
  • Ukraine has agreements on the portability of old-age pensions with several countries and remains a signatory of the pension mobility agreement within the Commonwealth of Independent States.
  • All Ukrainian citizens can exercise their right to vote abroad at Ukraine’s diplomatic missions.
  • Ukraine offers immigrants a path to permanent residency. 

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Only permanent residents are offered access to state-funded healthcare and social security.
  • Only permanent residents have access to the labour market, freely accessing and changing jobs, with the option of self-employment also open only to them while immigrants cannot work in the civil service.

Ukraine allows only Ukrainian citizens to vote in local elections.

Key findings
WHOLE OF GOVERNMENT APPROACH

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas:

  • Ukraine has migration laws that regulate aspects such as migrants’ rights as well as border crossing, immigration and emigration procedures. Simplified explanations can be found on the websites of the State Migration Service (SMS) and the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine (SBGS).
  • Migration data is readily available through the annually published Migration Profile  the “Demographic Yearbook” as well as  statistics on migrants employed in Ukraine and Ukrainian nationals employed abroad.
  • Ukraine has a sophisticated mechanism to manage diaspora engagement in the implementation of development policy through the National Commission for Matters Concerning Ukrainians Abroad as well as the State Programme for Cooperation with Ukrainians Abroad until 2020. 

Areas with potential for further development:

  • There is still scope for better coordination on migration issues among government agencies.

Migration-related issues are not specified in Ukraine’s national development strategy, the “Ukraine 2020” Strategy of Sustainable Development”. 

Key findings
Partnerships

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas:

  • Ukraine’s Association Agreement with the European Union (EU) endorses bilateral labour agreements (BLAs) only with member states
  • Government agencies have memoranda of understanding (MOUs) with various counterparts responsible for migration in other countries, with further BLAs under way. 
  • The Government of Ukraine partners with civil society, the academic community, and diaspora communities in the formation of migration policy through dedicated consultative bodies. 
  • The country is represented in the governing bodies of the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) as well as in the Global Forum on Migration and Development (GFMD) and several regional consultative processes.

Areas with potential for further development: 

While there is evidence of ad hoc cooperation, there is no specific forum for engagement with the private sector on migration issues. 

Key findings
Well-being of migrants

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas:

  • Ukraine considers immigrants’ skills and qualifications when deciding whether to admit them. 
  • Ukraine has a procedure for recognition of foreign higher education qualifications and directly accepts international qualifications through several bilateral and multilateral agreements.
  • Ukraine guarantees access to social security for labour migrants on a par with its nationals.  Bilateral labour agreements, as well as several domestic laws, provide similar guarantees for the rights of Ukrainian nationals working abroad. 

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Tuition fees at public universities are considerably higher for international students than for Ukrainian citizens. International students are furthermore not allowed to work during their studies, nor is there a scheme allowing them to stay and work after graduation. 
  • There is still scope to improve recruitment practices of migrants. 

Data on migration and the labour market is somewhat fragmented; there are no centralised statistics on the labour market that are disaggregated by migration status.

Key findings
Mobility Dimensions of crises

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas:

  • In times of crisis, migrants enjoy the same rights and bear the same obligations as Ukrainian nationals.
  • Ukraine admits refugees and persons in need of complementary and temporary protection.

Ukraine’s “Strategy for the Integration of Internally Displaced Persons and the Implementation of Durable Solutions Regarding Internal Displacement for the Period up to 2020” aims to protect the rights, freedoms and interests of internally displaced persons, to increase their independence and self-sufficiency, and to work with local government in assisting them.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Migration issues or crisis-related displacement are not addressed in Ukraine’s core law for crisis management. In addition, there is no disaster risk reduction strategy or a strategy to address migratory movements caused by environmental degradation.

There is no contingency plan to manage large-scale population movements, particularly inbound cross-border movements. 

Key findings
Safe, orderly and regular migration

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas:

  • Border security and control trainings are held regularly. 
  • Ukraine operates a mixed online- and paper-based visa system with clearly outlined visa options in Ukrainian and English. 
  • There is an established system to monitor visa and visa-free term overstays.
  • Ukraine conforms to international standards in its efforts to combat human trafficking through its “State Social Programme for Countering Human Trafficking for the Period until 2020”.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • There is no all-encompassing programme aimed at promoting the return of Ukrainians abroad, except for the reintegration of labour migrants and their families.

2019 April

Migration Governance Profile: Ukraine