About the Migration Governance Indicators
About the Migration Governance Indicators
Migrants' rights
Migrants' rights

Indicators in this domain assess the extent to which migrants have the same status as citizens in terms of access to basic social services such as health, education, and social security. It also describes the rights of migrants to family reunification, to work, and to residency and citizenship. The ratification of the main international conventions is also included within this domain.

Whole of government approach
Whole of government approach

Indicators in this domain assess countries’ institutional, legal, and regulatory frameworks related to migration policies. Domain 2 also reviews the existence of national migration strategies that are in-line with development, as well as institutional transparency and coherence in relation to migration management. This domain also investigates the extent to which governments collect and use migration data.

Partnerships
Partnerships

This domain focuses on countries’ efforts to cooperate on migration-related issues with other states and with relevant non-governmental actors, including civil society organizations and the private sector. Cooperation can lead to improvements in governance by aligning and raising standards, increasing dialogue and providing structures to overcome challenges.

Well-being of migrants
Well-being of migrants

This domain includes indicators on countries’ policies for managing the socioeconomic well-being of migrants, through aspects such as the recognition of migrants’ educational and professional qualifications, provisions regulating student migration and the existence of bilateral labour agreements between countries. Indicators equally focus on policies and strategies related to diaspora engagement and migrant remittances.

Mobility dimensions of crises
Mobility dimensions of crises

This domain studies the type and level of preparedness of countries when they are faced with mobility dimensions of crises, linked to either disasters, the environment and/or conflict. The questions are used to identify the processes in place for nationals and non-nationals both during and after disasters, including whether humanitarian assistance is equally available to migrants as it is to citizens.

Safe, orderly and regular migration
Safe, orderly and regular migration

This domain analyses countries’ approach to migration management in terms of border control and enforcement policies, admission criteria for migrants, preparedness and resilience in the case of significant and unexpected migration flows, as well as the fight against trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants. It also assesses efforts and incentives to help integrate returning citizens.

Key findings
Introduction

This country overview describes examples of well-developed areas of the Republic of Zambia’s (hereafter referred to as Zambia) migration governance structures and areas with potential for further development, as evaluated through the six domains of the Migration Governance Indicators (MGI). These address migrants’ rights, a “whole-of-government” approach, partnerships, socioeconomic well-being of migrants, the mobility dimensions of crises, and safe and orderly migration.

Click the icons on the wheel to explore the key findings.

The Migration Governance Indicators (MGI) initiative is a policy-benchmarking programme led by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and implemented with the support of the Economist Intelligence Unit. Funding is provided by IOM Member States. 

Key findings
Migrants' rights

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • Zambia offers migrants equal access to government-funded healthcare as nationals. 
  • The Education Act provides for the right to education to all, including immigrants. 
  • Family reunification  is possible in Zambia under the legal basis provided by the Immigration and Deportation Act.  .
  • The Zambian Constitution includes provisions for dual citizenship and allows Zambians who had previously renounced their citizenship to claim it back.  

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Immigrants in formal employment have equal access to contributory social protection as nationals but other forms of social protection are only available to nationals.
  • There are no agreements with other countries on the portability of social security entitlements and earned benefits such as old-age pensions.
Key findings
Whole of government approach

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • The Department of Immigration’s website clearly presents the laws and regulations pertaining to migration and includes links to relevant laws, applications for permits, an online visa e-service and contacts for missions abroad. 
  • The National Migration Data Assessment (2017) aimed at identifying migration data gaps, eventually leading to the development of a Migration Profile for Zambia.
  • Efforts are underway regarding data collection on migration; the 2010 Census included questions relating to migration (both internal and external) and a module on labour migration and remittances has been added to the national Labour Force Survey. 

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Zambia does not have an overall inter-ministerial coordination mechanism for migration, yet certain aspects of migration policy are coordinated at the national level through specific committees.
Key findings
Partnerships

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • Zambia is a member of several regional consultative processes on migration including the Migration Dialogue for Southern Africa (MIDSA) or the Migration Dialogue from the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa Member States (MIDCOM). 
  • Zambia signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the Republic of South Africa on Labour and Employment, which aims to protect the rights of migrant workers in both countries.
  • Zambia concluded bilateral migration negotiations with the Republic of Angola resulting in visa free travel across the border. Zambia also has routine coordination of anti-human trafficking efforts with the Republics of Zimbabwe and Mozambique.
  • The Government of Zambia engages civil society organizations in agenda-setting and the implementation of migration-related programmes through various processes.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Zambia has not yet ratified the COMESA Free Movement Protocol, yet it is already gradually implementing some of the provisions of the protocol on a bilaterally. 
Key findings
Well-being of migrants

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • The Zambia Qualifications Authority verifies and evaluates Zambian and foreign qualifications against their equivalent on the Zambia Qualifications Framework. 
  • Zambia has bilateral labour engagements with the Republic of Seychelles and the Republic of Madagascar for the employment of skilled migrant workers in the education sector.
  • Zambia has a well-developed system for registering refugees and ensuring their protection. 

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • There are no specific programmes or consular support initiatives to protect the rights of Zambian nationals working abroad.
  • The cost of sending remittances to the country is relatively high. 
Key findings
Mobility dimensions of crises

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • Zambia recognizes the migratory effects of climate change and environmental degradation in its national policies and works with local leaders to identify populations residing in flood prone areas to relocate them to safer zones.
  • The country has a contingency plan in place to manage large-scale population movements in times of crisis.
  • A number of media institutions collaborate with the Zambia Meteorological Department to disseminate weather forecasts.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Zambia does not address the reintegration of returning migrants in its Seventh National Development Plan.  
Key findings
Safe, orderly and regular migration

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • Joint border management coordination mechanisms bring together different border management agencies. 
  • The Zambia Revenue Authority has implemented a tax concession for persons who are returning to take up residence after being abroad for a period of four years or more.
  • The Office of the Commissioner for Refugees keeps a comprehensive database of all registered asylum seekers and refugees in the country.
  • The National Referral Mechanism for the Protection of Vulnerable Migrants in Zambia provides guidance on the different stages of assistance to vulnerable migrants requiring protection assistance.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • There are no specific mechanisms aimed at tracing and identifying missing migrants within the national territory.

2019 November

Migration Governance Overview: The Republic of Zambia