Migration data sources
The demands for migration data arising from the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development have prompted the international statistical community to review the use of traditional sources for migration data, such as population and housing censuses, household surveys and administrative records. There is also increased interest in looking for alternative sources to enhance the collection and analysis of migration data. The better use and understanding of existing data sources are essential to improve migration management and policy. Information about migration comes from a variety of data sources that have strengths and limitations and can be used to produce different migration statistics.
Remittances, usually understood as the money or goods that migrants send back to families and friends in origin countries, are often the most direct and well-known link between migration and development. Remittances exceed official development aid but are private funds. Global estimates of financial transfers by migrants include transactions beyond what are commonly assumed to be remittances, as the statistical definition used for the collection of data on remittances is broader (see IMF, 2009). Also, such estimates do not cover informal transfers. Remittances can also be of a social nature, such as the ideas, behaviour, identities, social capital and knowledge that migrants acquire during their residence in another part of the country or abroad, that can be transferred to communities of origin (Levitt, 1998: 927).
Older persons and migration
It is important to collect, process and report data on older persons in the migration context to improve policy and planning. These endeavors will also support the achievement of ageing-related United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), such as protecting the human rights of all people of all ages by “leaving no one behind”, and the commitment to address issues of ageing in the 21st century in the Political Declaration and Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing. Currently, several migration data sources provide migration data disaggregated by age. Nevertheless, given the extensive attention to help the most vulnerable groups of migrants, namely women and children, data on the older migrant population are only occasionally prepared and used. Collecting and disaggregating migration data by age is not sufficient to tackle the challenges faced by older people in a migration context. Older persons in migration contexts are at risk of being overlooked, which might perpetuate vulnerabilities and inequalities. In addition, there is a lack of data on older persons left behind and their needs.
International migrant stocks
International migrant stocks are estimates of "the total number of international migrants present in a given country at a particular point in time" (UN SD, 2017: 9). United Nations (UN) data on these stocks are based mostly on the country’s population that is born abroad, and (where this information is not available) on holding a foreign citizenship (UN DESA, 2016: 4; UN SD, 2017). Data on migrant stocks are often reported together with data on migrant flows. Although both terms account for the number of migrants, what they measure is different. Migrant flows data account for the number of migrants entering or leaving during a specified time period (usually one calendar year) (UN SD, 2017).