About the Migration Governance Indicators
About the Migration Governance Indicators
Migrants' rights
Migrants' rights

Indicators in this domain assess the extent to which migrants have the same status as citizens in terms of access to basic social services such as health, education, and social security. It also describes the rights of migrants to family reunification, to work, and to residency and citizenship. The ratification of the main international conventions is also included within this domain.

Whole of government approach
Whole of government approach

Indicators in this domain assess countries’ institutional, legal, and regulatory frameworks related to migration policies. Domain 2 also reviews the existence of national migration strategies that are in-line with development, as well as institutional transparency and coherence in relation to migration management. This domain also investigates the extent to which governments collect and use migration data.

Partnerships
Partnerships

This domain focuses on countries’ efforts to cooperate on migration-related issues with other states and with relevant non-governmental actors, including civil society organizations and the private sector. Cooperation can lead to improvements in governance by aligning and raising standards, increasing dialogue and providing structures to overcome challenges.

Well-being of migrants
Well-being of migrants

This domain includes indicators on countries’ policies for managing the socioeconomic well-being of migrants, through aspects such as the recognition of migrants’ educational and professional qualifications, provisions regulating student migration and the existence of bilateral labour agreements between countries. Indicators equally focus on policies and strategies related to diaspora engagement and migrant remittances.

Mobility dimensions of crises
Mobility dimensions of crises

This domain studies the type and level of preparedness of countries when they are faced with mobility dimensions of crises, linked to either disasters, the environment and/or conflict. The questions are used to identify the processes in place for nationals and non-nationals both during and after disasters, including whether humanitarian assistance is equally available to migrants as it is to citizens.

Safe, orderly and dignified migration
Safe, orderly and dignified migration

This domain analyses countries’ approach to migration management in terms of border control and enforcement policies, admission criteria for migrants, preparedness and resilience in the case of significant and unexpected migration flows, as well as the fight against trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants. It also assesses efforts and incentives to help integrate returning citizens.

Key findings
INTRODUCTION

This country snapshot describes examples of well-developed areas of the Republic of Albania (hereafter referred to as Albania) migration governance structures and areas with potential for further development, as evaluated by the six domains of the Migration Governance Indicators (MGI). These address migrants’ rights, a “whole-of-government” approach, partnerships, socioeconomic well-being of migrants, the mobility dimensions of crises, and safe and orderly migration. 

Click the icons on the wheel to explore the key findings.

The Migration Governance Indicators (MGI) initiative is a policy-benchmarking programme led by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and implemented with the support of the Economist Intelligence Unit. 

Key findings
MIGRANTS’ RIGHTS

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas: 

  • Regular migrants have the same status as Albanian citizens in accessing government-funded health services; and in the event of medical emergency, all immigrants, irrespective of legal status, have access to health care.  

  • Immigrants may apply for permanent residence if they have continuously resided in Albania for at least five years and they meet certain additional conditions.  

  • Permanent residents and those on family reunification permits have the same access to employment and self-employment as nationals.  

  • Equal employment rights are granted to refugees through a special work permit.  

Areas with potential for further development:  

  • Foreign residents are not permitted to vote in local elections.  

  • Employment within the public sector is restricted to Albanian citizens.

Key findings
WHOLE-OF-GOVERNMENT APPROACH 

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas: 

  • Albania’s immigration procedures are regulated by Law 108/2013, which establishes the conditions and procedures for the entrance, stay and departure of immigrants in the country.  

  • The Ministry of Interior is the main authority responsible for the management of immigration and integration of immigrants.  

  • The State Minister on Diaspora is responsible for designing an overall diaspora policy, in cooperation with other Ministries.  

  • Migration-relevant laws, rules, regulations and information relating to visa application processes are generally available online.  

  • Data on migration are collected and published on a regular basis by various government offices; Albania’s Migration Profile is published on a yearly basis.  

Areas with potential for further development:  

  • The coordination mechanism on migration mainly works on an ad hoc basis through working groups on specific issues. 

Key findings
PARTNERSHIPS

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas: 

  • Albania is part of the Budapest Process and the Prague Process.  

  • The country is part of various initiatives promoting labour mobility, more effective management of migration flows in the region, border security, free trade, and development and security.  

  • Albania has various MOUs and agreements related to migration with other countries on, for example, irregular migration, counter-terrorism, organized crime, illicit trafficking of narcotic drugs, exchange of information on migration, among others.  

  • The project “Engage the Albanian Diaspora to the Social and Economic Development of Albania” aims to enhance the engagement of Albanian diaspora members in the development of the country.  

Areas with potential for further development:  

  • There are no arrangements for formal intra-regional mobility or labour mobility.  

  • The private sector and social partners are involved in migration policy development and implementation only on an ad hoc basis and mainly in relation to entrepreneurial initiatives.

Key findings
WELL-BEING OF MIGRANTS

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas:  

  • Albania has different types of visas to attract specific labour skills.  

  • Albania has participated in the European Qualifications Framework since 2010 and is a full member of the Bologna Process and the European Higher Education Area since 2003.  

  • Albania has various bilateral labour agreements on mobility with countries including Germany, Greece, Italy, and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, as well as with the European Union.  

  • Through Decision No. 101, 23 February 2018, the Council of Ministers of Albania regulated the functioning of private recruitment agencies in Albania to promote ethical standards for the recruitment of immigrants.  

  • Under Law No. 9668, the State undertakes to guarantee the care and protection of its citizens abroad, as well as the maintenance and reinforcement of their ties to Albania.  

  • The Bank of Albania recently launched “Project Greenback”, which aims at increasing efficiency in the market for remittances, mainly through awareness-raising and financial education activities.  

Areas with potential for further development:  

  • Albania does not provide equal access to university education for international students. Each academic year, quotas are determined for international students who wish to study at an Albanian university. 

  • There is no system in place to monitor labour market demands for immigrants.  

  • There are no assessments of the impact of emigration on the domestic labour market.

Key findings
MOBILITY DIMENSION OF CRISES

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas: 

  • The start of the 2016 crisis saw the activation of the Balkan Route whereby the Government, with the technical support of the IOM, developed a Contingency Plan for the significant influx of migrants and refugees.  

  • Albania’s legal framework includes provisions to protect immigrants’ rights in times of crisis, including exceptions to the immigration procedures for those whose country of origin is experiencing crisis.  

Areas with potential for further development:  

  • The National Civil Emergency Plan does not include a specific strategy to assist immigrants during crisis and post-crisis phases in the country.  

  • There is no strategy in place for addressing migratory movements caused by the adverse effects of climate change.  

  • The migration policy does not explicitly address the potential return of migrants who fled the country during a period of crisis.

Key findings
SAFE, ORDERLY AND DIGNIFIED MIGRATION

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas: 

  • Integrated border control and security in Albania is under the administrative jurisdiction of the Minister of Internal Affairs and carried out by the Border and Migration Police.  

  • The Government clearly outlines visa options and the procedures for obtaining different types of visa on the Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ website. Visa applications can be submitted online.  

  • There are several formal government programmes and policies that are focused on attracting and integrating nationals who have migration from Albania. Such measures are foreseen in the National Strategy for Employment and Skills 2014-2020 and Law No. 10389/2011.  

  • The Ministry of Interior is in charge of coordinating efforts to combat human trafficking through the National Coordination Office Against the Trafficking of Human Beings and its Anti-trafficking and Migration Directorate.

2018 September

Migration Governance Snapshot: Republic of Albania