About the Migration Governance Indicators
About the Migration Governance Indicators
Migrants' rights
Migrants' rights

Indicators in this domain assess the extent to which migrants have the same status as citizens in terms of access to basic social services such as health, education, and social security. It also describes the rights of migrants to family reunification, to work, and to residency and citizenship. The ratification of the main international conventions is also included within this domain.

Whole of government approach
Whole of government approach

Indicators in this domain assess countries’ institutional, legal, and regulatory frameworks related to migration policies. Domain 2 also reviews the existence of national migration strategies that are in-line with development, as well as institutional transparency and coherence in relation to migration management. This domain also investigates the extent to which governments collect and use migration data.

Partnerships
Partnerships

This domain focuses on countries’ efforts to cooperate on migration-related issues with other states and with relevant non-governmental actors, including civil society organizations and the private sector. Cooperation can lead to improvements in governance by aligning and raising standards, increasing dialogue and providing structures to overcome challenges.

Well-being of migrants
Well-being of migrants

This domain includes indicators on countries’ policies for managing the socioeconomic well-being of migrants, through aspects such as the recognition of migrants’ educational and professional qualifications, provisions regulating student migration and the existence of bilateral labour agreements between countries. Indicators equally focus on policies and strategies related to diaspora engagement and migrant remittances.

Mobility dimensions of crises
Mobility dimensions of crises

This domain studies the type and level of preparedness of countries when they are faced with mobility dimensions of crises, linked to either disasters, the environment and/or conflict. The questions are used to identify the processes in place for nationals and non-nationals both during and after disasters, including whether humanitarian assistance is equally available to migrants as it is to citizens.

Safe, orderly and regular migration
Safe, orderly and regular migration

This domain analyses countries’ approach to migration management in terms of border control and enforcement policies, admission criteria for migrants, preparedness and resilience in the case of significant and unexpected migration flows, as well as the fight against trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants. It also assesses efforts and incentives to help integrate returning citizens.

Key findings
INTRODUCTION

This country snapshot describes examples of well-developed areas of the Republic of El Salvador’s (hereafter referred to as El Salvador) migration governance structures and areas with potential for further development, as evaluated by the six domains of the Migration Governance Indicators (MGI). These address migrants’ rights, a “whole-of-government” approach, partnerships, socioeconomic well-being of migrants, the mobility dimensions of crises, and safe and orderly migration.

Click the icons on the wheel to explore the key findings.

The Migration Governance Indicators (MGI) initiative is a policy-benchmarking programme led by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and implemented with the support of the Economist Intelligence Unit. Funding is provided by the Government of Sweden.

Key findings
1. MIGRANTS' RIGHTS

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • All migrants have universal access to basic health services, regardless of legal status.
  • Once permanent residence has been obtained, the formalities for naturalization can begin after five years of residency in the country.
  • Family reunification is possible for all migrants with permanent and temporary residence permits.

Areas with potential for further development:

  • Only migrants who have a work permit or a long-term residence permit are entitled to social security.
  • Migrants do not have immediate access to the formal labour market, because some requirements must be met in order to apply for a work permit. These requirements include having a job offer in the country and evidence that local workers are not being displaced.
  • Migrants are not allowed to vote in municipal elections.
Key findings
2. WHOLE-OF-GOVERNMENT APPROACH

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • El Salvador has organized well structured migration governance framework
  • The National Policy for the Protection and Development of Salvadoran Migrants and their Families, adopted in July 2017, is the main instrument in the country’s emigration governance
  • The National Council for the Protection and Development of Migrants and their Families (CONMIGRANTES) is an inter-institutional body whose purpose is to serve as a link between the different governmental institutions, reinforcing the horizontal coherence of El Salvador’s migration policy.

Areas with potential for further development:

  • Development plans address the topic of emigration. However, they do not include topics related to immigration.
Key findings
3. PARTNERSHIPS

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • El Salvador takes part in regional consultation processes on migration such as the Regional Conference on Migration (RCM).
  • Along with Honduras, Guatemala and Nicaragua, El Salvador is member of the inter-regional freedom of mobility agreement, the Central America-4 Border Control Agreement (CA-4). The Agreement for the Creation of a Single Central American Visa for the Free Movement of Aliens in the Region has also allowed free movement of migrants within these four member states.
  • El Salvador has signed bilateral agreements with other countries on migration and human mobility. It also participates in formal negotiations with countries of origin and destination of migration movements.  

Areas with potential for further development:

  • The Government’s efforts to promote coordination with the private sector and its inclusion in the development of migration policy should be recognized.
  • The government also plans to promote the representation of associations of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), a challenge that is yet to be taken up. 
Key findings
4. WELL-BEING OF MIGRANTS

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • El Salvador has signed formal bilateral labor agreements with the goal of managing migration governance and migration flows.
  • The National Policy for the Protection and Development of Salvadoran Migrants and their Families of 2017 includes lines of action aimed at providing a free legal advice service to migrants abroad, and ensuring the follow-up of deportation cases.
  • The Social Housing Fund (FSV) has a programme that facilitates access to remittance-backed mortgage loans for Salvadorans living abroad.

Areas with potential for further development:

  • The development of formal mechanisms that allow the monitoring of the effects of migration on the labour market could be considered. Similarly, programmes that facilitate the granting of residence permits based on specific job skills could be developed and implemented.
  • The insertion of foreign student in the labour market once the studies have been completed could be facilitated and promoted.
Key findings
5. MOBILITY DIMENSIONS OF CRISES

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • The Government of El Salvador has mechanisms for assisting its citizens in situations of crisis abroad. For instance, 18 consulates have been opened in the United States. Consular services provided on United States territory include: legal assistance, food allowances for families in need, and repatriation of Salvadoran citizens in vulnerable situations.

Areas with potential for further development:

  • Strategies for disaster management and recovery after crises could address the issue of migration.
  • The five-year development plans could include strategies to support people who must migrate due to insecurity, and components for the provision of humanitarian assistance to the immigrant population.
Key findings
6. SAFE, ORDERLY and REGULAR MIGRATION

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • El Salvador has a governance body, the General Directorate of Migration and Immigration (DGME), which assumes full responsibility for border control and security. The staff of the DGME regularly receives training on multiple topics that are relevant to their activities.
  • There are various government programmes in El Salvador that focus on facilitating the reintegration of returning migrants. For instance, “El Salvador es tu casa” (El Salvador is your home) is an initiative that seeks to enhance academic, employment and entrepreneurial opportunities for the benefit of Salvadorans who return to their country.

Areas with potential for further development:

  • Progress in buttressing the institutional and regulatory framework relating to human trafficking in El Salvador could include the regular publication of statistics on the fight against sexual and commercial exploitation, as well as human trafficking and smuggling.

2018 May

Migration Governance Snapshot: Republic of El Salvador