About the Migration Governance Indicators
About the Migration Governance Indicators
Migrants' rights
Migrants' rights

Indicators in this domain assess the extent to which migrants have the same status as citizens in terms of access to basic social services such as health, education, and social security. It also describes the rights of migrants to family reunification, to work, and to residency and citizenship. The ratification of the main international conventions is also included within this domain.

Whole of government approach
Whole of government approach

Indicators in this domain assess countries’ institutional, legal, and regulatory frameworks related to migration policies. Domain 2 also reviews the existence of national migration strategies that are in-line with development, as well as institutional transparency and coherence in relation to migration management. This domain also investigates the extent to which governments collect and use migration data.

Partnerships
Partnerships

This domain focuses on countries’ efforts to cooperate on migration-related issues with other states and with relevant non-governmental actors, including civil society organizations and the private sector. Cooperation can lead to improvements in governance by aligning and raising standards, increasing dialogue and providing structures to overcome challenges.

Well-being of migrants
Well-being of migrants

This domain includes indicators on countries’ policies for managing the socioeconomic well-being of migrants, through aspects such as the recognition of migrants’ educational and professional qualifications, provisions regulating student migration and the existence of bilateral labour agreements between countries. Indicators equally focus on policies and strategies related to diaspora engagement and migrant remittances.

Mobility dimensions of crises
Mobility dimensions of crises

This domain studies the type and level of preparedness of countries when they are faced with mobility dimensions of crises, linked to either disasters, the environment and/or conflict. The questions are used to identify the processes in place for nationals and non-nationals both during and after disasters, including whether humanitarian assistance is equally available to migrants as it is to citizens.

Safe, orderly and dignified migration
Safe, orderly and dignified migration

This domain analyses countries’ approach to migration management in terms of border control and enforcement policies, admission criteria for migrants, preparedness and resilience in the case of significant and unexpected migration flows, as well as the fight against trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants. It also assesses efforts and incentives to help integrate returning citizens.

Key findings
INTRODUCTION

This country profile describes examples of well-developed areas of the Federal Republic of Germany’s (hereafter, Germany) migration governance structures and areas with potential for further development, as evaluated by the six domains of the Migration Governance Indicators (MGI). These address migrants’ rights, a “whole-of-government” approach, partnerships, socioeconomic well-being of migrants, the mobility dimensions of crises, and safe and orderly migration. 

Click the icons on the wheel to explore the key findings. 

The Migration Governance Indicators (MGI) initiative is a policy-benchmarking programme led by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and implemented with the support of the Economist Intelligence Unit. Funding is provided by IOM’s Member States.

Key findings
MIGRANTS’ RIGHTS

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas: 

  • Migrants have the same status as citizens in accessing government-funded primary and secondary education. 

  • Access to social security  is provided regardless of nationality to anyone with a residence title but there may be limitations on the level of protection offered for those lacking stable employment and for those on temporary permits. 

  • Temporary legal residents are entitled to apply for a permit to remain in Germany permanently, provided they fulfil a number of conditions.  

  • Foreign residents from the EU can vote in municipal elections. 

Areas with potential for further development:  

  • Access to healthcare is limited for undocumented migrants.  

  • Family reunification with regular migrants is a recognised reason for immigration but eligibility depends on varying conditions. 

Key findings
WHOLE-OF-GOVERNMENT APPROACH 

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas: 

  • Most activities relating to migration are performed by the Federal Ministry of the Interior (BMI) and the Federal Länder, as well as the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF). The Commissary for Migration, Refugees and Integration (Beauftragte der Bundesregierung für Migration, Flüchtlinge und Integration) is in charge of supporting the government in policymaking on the topic of integration. 

  • The Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (BMAS) with its Federal Employment Agency (BA) is in charge of migration for the purpose of employment as well as migrants’ integration into the labour market. 

  • Germany has a clear and transparent set of rules and regulations pertaining to migration and publishes regular data on migration flows.  

Areas with potential for further development:  

  • Germany has not published a comprehensive integrated national migration strategy, although there are programmatic documents that deal with distinct aspects of migration. 

  • Although there are programmes to support Germans emigrating, there is no formal strategy for diaspora engagement. 

Key findings
PARTNERSHIPS

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas: 

  • Germany is an active member of the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and works closely with the ​​​United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). 

  • Germany has signed bilateral agreements with Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Turkey and the Russian Federation on the employment in certain occupations. 

  • The German Government is also actively partnering with Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) that work on migration issues. 

Areas with potential for further development:  

  • The country does not formally engage members of the German diaspora members in agenda setting and the implementation of development policy.  

Key findings
WELL-BEING OF MIGRANTS  

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas:  

  • Every six months the German Federal Employment Agency publishes an analysis of needs for skilled workers, which assesses the situation of skilled workers in Germany. 

  • Foreigners and Germans can apply to have their foreign qualifications recognised through the reciprocity process (Gleichwertigkeitsprüfung). The Federal Ministry of Education and Research hosts a website that defines occupational profiles and states whether an equivalence review is mandatory to pursue a profession. 

  • International students are permitted to work for a limited number of hours during their studies. Foreign students who have graduated in Germany may have their residence permit extended for up to 18 months in order to seek employment relevant to their field of study. 

Areas with potential for further development:  

  • The total average costs of sending remittances from Germany is higher in comparison to other G20 countries. 

Key findings
MOBILITY DIMENSION OF CRISES

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas: 

  • The government has a national Disaster Risk Reduction strategy with specific provisions for addressing disaster displacement; humanitarian assistance is equally accessible to all, including immigrants. 

  • The country has a set of laws and rules to manage big population movements. 

  • Germany engages in international processes on migration and forced displacement, including the Global Compact on Migration and the Global Compact on Refugees. 

Areas with potential for further development:  

  • Germany does not have any strategies in place for addressing migratory movements caused by the adverse effects of environmental degradation or climate change. 

  • Germany's Federal Office of Civil Protection and Disaster Assistance has comprehensive communication strategies in place in the event of a disaster but the languages used by warning systems are limited. 

Key findings
SAFE, ORDERLY AND DIGNIFIED MIGRATION

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas: 

  • The Federal Police (Bundespolizei) is responsible for border control and security. Police officers, civil servants and immigration inspectors receive regular training, including language training. 

  • The Foreign Office has a website that clearly outlines visa options and there are migration advisory centres in a range of countries in the Western Balkans, North Africa, West Africa and the Middle East that provide advice on legal migration and work possibilities in Germany.  

  • Government programmes focusing on facilitating migrant return and reintegration in countries of origin are a central element of Germany’s migration policy. 

  • The German Federal Criminal Police is the lead agency dealing with human trafficking along with state-level police and it publishes an annual report on trafficking in Germany. 

Areas with potential for further development:  

  • Although there is a formal system for applying for specific visa types prior to arrival, the application must be submitted in person and is paper-based.  

  • There is no formal governmental programme focused on attracting German nationals who emigrated abroad.

2018 September

Migration Governance Snapshot: The Federal Republic of Germany