About the Migration Governance Indicators
About the Migration Governance Indicators
Migrants' rights
Migrants' rights

Indicators in this domain assess the extent to which migrants have the same status as citizens in terms of access to basic social services such as health, education, and social security. It also describes the rights of migrants to family reunification, to work, and to residency and citizenship. The ratification of the main international conventions is also included within this domain.

Whole of government approach
Whole of government approach

Indicators in this domain assess countries’ institutional, legal, and regulatory frameworks related to migration policies. Domain 2 also reviews the existence of national migration strategies that are in-line with development, as well as institutional transparency and coherence in relation to migration management. This domain also investigates the extent to which governments collect and use migration data.

Partnerships
Partnerships

This domain focuses on countries’ efforts to cooperate on migration-related issues with other states and with relevant non-governmental actors, including civil society organizations and the private sector. Cooperation can lead to improvements in governance by aligning and raising standards, increasing dialogue and providing structures to overcome challenges.

Well-being of migrants
Well-being of migrants

This domain includes indicators on countries’ policies for managing the socioeconomic well-being of migrants, through aspects such as the recognition of migrants’ educational and professional qualifications, provisions regulating student migration and the existence of bilateral labour agreements between countries. Indicators equally focus on policies and strategies related to diaspora engagement and migrant remittances.

Mobility dimensions of crises
Mobility dimensions of crises

This domain studies the type and level of preparedness of countries when they are faced with mobility dimensions of crises, linked to either disasters, the environment and/or conflict. The questions are used to identify the processes in place for nationals and non-nationals both during and after disasters, including whether humanitarian assistance is equally available to migrants as it is to citizens.

Safe, orderly and regular migration
Safe, orderly and regular migration

This domain analyses countries’ approach to migration management in terms of border control and enforcement policies, admission criteria for migrants, preparedness and resilience in the case of significant and unexpected migration flows, as well as the fight against trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants. It also assesses efforts and incentives to help integrate returning citizens.

Key findings
Introduction

This country profile describes the well-developed areas of the Republic of Kazakhstan’s (hereafter Kazakhstan) migration governance structures and areas with potential for further development, as evaluated by the six domains of the Migration Governance Indicators (MGI). These address migrants’ rights, a “whole-of-government” approach, partnerships, socioeconomic well-being of migrants, the mobility dimensions of crises, and safe and orderly migration.  

Click the icons on the wheel to explore the key findings.

The Migration Governance Indicators (MGI) initiative is a policy-benchmarking programme led by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and implemented with the support of the Economist Intelligence Unit. Funding is provided by the Government of Sweden.

Key findings
Domain 1. Adherence to international standards and fulfilment of migrants' rights

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • Immigrants are guaranteed access to preschool, primary, and secondary education in public educational institutions.
  • Regular immigrants and stateless persons in Kazakhstan have the right to free medical assistance (GAFMA) in the case of acute diseases listed by the Government, unless otherwise stipulated by international agreements. 
  • There is a favourable framework for achieving long-term residency. 
  • The law on Migration of the Republic of Kazakhstan (2011) includes a family reunification procedure for permanent residents and immigrants who own a business in Kazakhstan. 
  • Since 2014 state-funded social services are available to repatriated Kazakhs, stateless persons, and foreign citizens who were victims of trafficking in the country. 

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Irregular and undocumented migrants do now have access to the health-care system beyond emergency treatment. 
  • Migrant workers are not covered by the law “On the Mandatory Social Insurance”, and are not entitled to receive social allowances. 
  • Migrants’ right to work is somewhat restricted, as they may be barred from certain labour activities.
Key findings
Domain 2: Whole of government approach

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • Kazakhstan has a set of government structures in place responsible for formulating and implementing migration policies. 
  • The country offers a coherent legal framework for migration, based on the 2011 Law on Migration. It regulates immigration, defines categories of migrants, and lays out specific immigration procedures. 
  • Kazakhstan also has agencies specifically collecting data on migration, including the Committee on Statistics, the Ministry of Interior, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Social Protection. 

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Since Kazakhstan is primarily a country of immigration, it does not currently have national legislation governing emigration. 
  • Policy coherence between different government entities could be strengthened. 
  • National mechanisms for the protection of migrants’ rights can be developed further. 
Key findings
Domain 3: Partnerships

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • Kazakhstan is a participant of the Global Forum on Migration and Development (GFMD). It is also a member state of the IOM and is actively involved in IOM-led activities. 
  • Kazakhstan is also a member of two regional consultative processes: the Almaty and the Budapest Processes. 
  • A major development in terms of labour mobility has been Kazakhstan’s membership in the Eurasian Economic Union and access to the common labour market of the Russian Federation, Belarus, the Kyrgyz Republic and Armenia.
  • Kazakhstan also has participated in a number of agreements, including the legal act of “Labour Migration in the countries of Commonwealth Independent States (CIS)”, an Agreement between Kazakhstan and Tajikistan on Labour Activity and Social Protection of Labour Migrants. 

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Engagement of the private sector and civil society organizations in migration policymaking could be strengthened to take place more regularly.
  • Kazakhstan has neither ratified nor signed the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families; neither has it ratified the ILO Migration Employment Convention (Revised) 1949, or the ILO Migrant Workers Convention (Supplementary Provisions) 1975. 
Key findings
Domain 3: Well-being of migrants

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • The Republic of Kazakhstan guarantees the protection of the rights and freedoms of migrant workers pursuant to its Constitution, laws and international agreements.
  • Kazakhstan regulates labour immigration by economic sector and region, based on demand and input from local authorities. 
  • Kazakhstan is a party to a number of international conventions on the recognition of foreign degrees.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • There is a quota for the enrolment in universities of students of ethnic Kazakh origin who are not citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
  • Few measures to promote the ethical recruitment of migrants in Kazakhstan are in place.
Key findings
Domain 5: Mobility dimensions of crises

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • Kazakh legislation extends the right to humanitarian assistance and access to emergency services to all immigrants, regardless of their legal status. 
  • The Committee for Emergency Situations within the Ministry of Interior operates a Centre for Emergency Situations and Disaster Risk Reduction in cooperation with the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Kyrgyz Republic.
  • In cases of crisis or natural disasters, Kazakh diplomatic missions are required to assist with the evacuation of their citizens. Consuls must also provide financial assistance and support for Kazakh citizens who find themselves in difficulty abroad and need to contact their families.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • There is no specific strategy in place to provide assistance to immigrants in crisis and post-crisis situations.  
  • There are no provisions in place for handling the return of emigrants who have left the country during crisis.
Key findings
DOMAIN 6: SAFE, ORDERLY AND REGULAR MIGRATION

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas:

  • While the Kazakh Border Service Academy is responsible for training members of the border service, there is also regular training on border management as part of the European Union-funded Border Management Programme in Central Asia (BOMCA) as well as regional trainings organized by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).
  • There is an Inter-Agency Committee on Combating Trafficking in Persons, which is operated on a rotational bases by the Kazakh Ministry of Labour and Social Protection, and the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
  • Kazakhstan runs a government repatriation programme for ethnic Kazaks (Oralmans) living abroad, which includes the provision of free adaptation and integration services, such as free accommodation, language lessons and assistance with employment.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • There is a lack of clear and accessible information on the different types of visas and permits available for migrants migrating to Kazakhstan. 
  • It is not yet possible to apply for visas online. 
  • With the exception of the government funded repatriation programme for ethnic Kazakhs living abroad, Kazakhstan does not have a policy incentivizing the return of its citizens living abroad. 

2018 May

Migration Governance Profile: Republic of Kazakhstan