About the Migration Governance Indicators
About the Migration Governance Indicators
Migrants' rights
Migrants' rights

Indicators in this domain assess the extent to which migrants have the same status as citizens in terms of access to basic social services such as health, education, and social security. It also describes the rights of migrants to family reunification, to work, and to residency and citizenship. The ratification of the main international conventions is also included within this domain.

Whole of government approach
Whole of government approach

Indicators in this domain assess countries’ institutional, legal, and regulatory frameworks related to migration policies. Domain 2 also reviews the existence of national migration strategies that are in-line with development, as well as institutional transparency and coherence in relation to migration management. This domain also investigates the extent to which governments collect and use migration data.

Partnerships
Partnerships

This domain focuses on countries’ efforts to cooperate on migration-related issues with other states and with relevant non-governmental actors, including civil society organizations and the private sector. Cooperation can lead to improvements in governance by aligning and raising standards, increasing dialogue and providing structures to overcome challenges.

Well-being of migrants
Well-being of migrants

This domain includes indicators on countries’ policies for managing the socioeconomic well-being of migrants, through aspects such as the recognition of migrants’ educational and professional qualifications, provisions regulating student migration and the existence of bilateral labour agreements between countries. Indicators equally focus on policies and strategies related to diaspora engagement and migrant remittances.

Mobility dimensions of crises
Mobility dimensions of crises

This domain studies the type and level of preparedness of countries when they are faced with mobility dimensions of crises, linked to either disasters, the environment and/or conflict. The questions are used to identify the processes in place for nationals and non-nationals both during and after disasters, including whether humanitarian assistance is equally available to migrants as it is to citizens.

Safe, orderly and dignified migration
Safe, orderly and dignified migration

This domain analyses countries’ approach to migration management in terms of border control and enforcement policies, admission criteria for migrants, preparedness and resilience in the case of significant and unexpected migration flows, as well as the fight against trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants. It also assesses efforts and incentives to help integrate returning citizens.

Key findings
INTRODUCTION

This country snapshot describes examples of well-developed areas of the Kyrgyz Republic (hereafter referred to as Kyrgyzstan) migration governance structures and areas with potential for further development, as evaluated by the six domains of the Migration Governance Indicators (MGI). These address migrants’ rights, a “whole-of-government” approach, partnerships, socioeconomic well-being of migrants, the mobility dimensions of crises, and safe and orderly migration. 

Click the icons on the wheel to explore the key findings. 

The Migration Governance Indicators (MGI) initiative is a policy-benchmarking programme led by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and implemented with the support of the Economist Intelligence Unit.

Key findings
MIGRANTS’ RIGHTS

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas: 

  • All types of immigrants, regardless of their legal status, have access to health care and education in Kyrgyzstan on the same basis as nationals.  

  •  Permanent residents and those with a work permit have access to social security payments and pensions.  

  • Family reunification permits are available to all immigrants, regardless of their visa or residency status, provided that they can support their family members.  

  • All permanent residents and temporary residents with work permits are free to become self-employed or take up employment in the private or public sector, although some restrictions in the public sector apply.  

  • All immigrants can apply for permanent residence.  

  • Kyrgyz nationals abroad are allowed to vote in all elections.

Areas with potential for further development:  

  • Immigrants cannot vote in local elections.

Key findings
WHOLE-OF-GOVERNMENT APPROACH 

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas: 

  • A dedicated government agency, the State Migration Service, is tasked with implementing migration policy.  

  • There is a Coordination Council on Migration Issues under the Government, headed by the Vice-Prime Minister. The Council’s task is to coordinate the activities of state organs, social and international organizations, and to prepare policy recommendations relating to migration.  

  • The State Migration Service and the Communications Ministry are in charge of ties with Kyrgyz nationals abroad.  

Areas with potential for further development:  

  • There is no strategic or programmatic document defining the goals and tasks of migration policy in Kyrgyzstan.  

  • The collection and publication of migration data are sporadic.  

  • There are no consistent efforts to promote vertical policy coherence through regular consultation between different levels of government.

Key findings
PARTNERSHIPS

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas: 

  • Kyrgyzstan is a member state of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU).  

  • The country is also part of several regional consultative processes, such as the Almaty Process, the Budapest Process and the Prague Process.  

  • The Commonwealth of Independent States, of which Kyrgyzstan is a member, operates a Council of the Heads of Migration Agencies, which is aimed at coordinating migration policy.  

  • At the national level, the Public Observing Councils under the State Migration Service meets twice a year and includes representatives of civil society, academia, and Kyrgyz diaspora communities.  

  • Officials have also conducted national consultations on migration that include members of diaspora communities and other co-nationals. There is also a Council for Relations with Expatriates under the Government of Kyrgyzstan which provides recommendations for state policy with regard to co-nationals abroad.  

Areas with potential for further development:  

  • There is no specific forum for engagement with the private sector on migration issues.

Key findings
WELL-BEING OF MIGRANTS

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas:  

  • Kyrgyzstan’s State Migration Service takes into account immigrants’ skills and qualifications when deciding whether to grant them work permits.  

  • International students have equal access to education after obtaining a student visa. Tuition fees are equal for local and international students in public universities.  

  • Bilateral labour agreements signed with Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation allow for mobility, and the free flow of people among member states is guaranteed by the EEU.  

  • The law On External Labour Migration guarantees the ethical recruitment of migrant workers.  

Areas with potential for further development:  

  • Kyrgyzstan does not participate in any international schemes with common qualification frameworks.  

  • There is no consistent or reliable assessment of domestic labour supply and the effects of emigration on the domestic labour market.  

  • There is no clear data analysis for making yearly decisions on migrant quotas.  

  • Kyrgyzstan has not developed formal remittance schemes.

Key findings
MOBILITY DIMENSION OF CRISES

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas: 

  • Internal displacement in the wake of crises is regulated by the Law on Internal Migration, which guarantees the rights of the displaced to state assistance with the provision of shelter and medical treatment, as well as to return to their place of residence.  

  • In line with the Law on Refugees, Kyrgyzstan offers shelter to persons fleeing their country of residence in times of crisis, and in the event of a mass influx of refugees, the administration of applications for refugee status is expedited.  

  • The State Migration Service keeps record of citizens registered as living and working abroad.  

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Neither the Law on Protection of Citizens, nor its disaster risk reduction strategy, address migration issues or crisis-related displacement.  

  • There is no strategy to address migratory movements caused by environmental degradation.  

  • Communication during a crisis is not tailored to accommodate migrants and their particular situations.

Key findings
SAFE, ORDERLY AND DIGNIFIED MIGRATION

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas: 

  • The State Border Service is responsible for the protection of the state border, border control, and the prevention and prosecution of violations of the state border regime.  

  • The application for Kyrgyz visas can be made online or on paper. The Foreign Ministry operates a website explaining the types of visa available and the application process, although it is not available in English. 

  • Kyrgyzstan conforms to international standards in its efforts to combat human trafficking. 

  • The authorities are focused on giving opportunities to ethnic Kyrgyz. The Kayrylman programme is aimed at supporting the return of ethnic Kyrgyz from other countries, while the Meken-Card programme targets those migrants who have lost their Kyrgyz citizenship and taken up the citizenship of the host country. Both programmes offer legal status and simplified naturalization in Kyrgyzstan. 

Areas with potential for further development:  

  • There is no programme to attract emigrants to return.

2018 September

Migration Governance Snapshot: Kyrgyz Republic