About the Migration Governance Indicators
About the Migration Governance Indicators
Migrants' rights
Migrants' rights

Indicators in this domain assess the extent to which migrants have the same status as citizens in terms of access to basic social services such as health, education, and social security. It also describes the rights of migrants to family reunification, to work, and to residency and citizenship. The ratification of the main international conventions is also included within this domain.

Whole of government approach
Whole of government approach

Indicators in this domain assess countries’ institutional, legal, and regulatory frameworks related to migration policies. Domain 2 also reviews the existence of national migration strategies that are in-line with development, as well as institutional transparency and coherence in relation to migration management. This domain also investigates the extent to which governments collect and use migration data.

Partnerships
Partnerships

This domain focuses on countries’ efforts to cooperate on migration-related issues with other states and with relevant non-governmental actors, including civil society organizations and the private sector. Cooperation can lead to improvements in governance by aligning and raising standards, increasing dialogue and providing structures to overcome challenges.

Well-being of migrants
Well-being of migrants

This domain includes indicators on countries’ policies for managing the socioeconomic well-being of migrants, through aspects such as the recognition of migrants’ educational and professional qualifications, provisions regulating student migration and the existence of bilateral labour agreements between countries. Indicators equally focus on policies and strategies related to diaspora engagement and migrant remittances.

Mobility dimensions of crises
Mobility dimensions of crises

This domain studies the type and level of preparedness of countries when they are faced with mobility dimensions of crises, linked to either disasters, the environment and/or conflict. The questions are used to identify the processes in place for nationals and non-nationals both during and after disasters, including whether humanitarian assistance is equally available to migrants as it is to citizens.

Safe, orderly and dignified migration
Safe, orderly and dignified migration

This domain analyses countries’ approach to migration management in terms of border control and enforcement policies, admission criteria for migrants, preparedness and resilience in the case of significant and unexpected migration flows, as well as the fight against trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants. It also assesses efforts and incentives to help integrate returning citizens.

Key findings
INTRODUCTION

This country profile describes examples of well-developed areas of the Republic of Mauritius’ migration governance structures and areas with potential for further development, as evaluated by the six domains of the Migration Governance Indicators (MGI). These address migrants’ rights, a ”whole-of-government" approach, partnerships, socioeconomic well-being of migrants, the mobility dimensions of crises, and safe and orderly migration.

Click the icons on the wheel to explore the key findings.

The Migration Governance Indicators (MGI) initiative is a policy-benchmarking programme led by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and implemented with the support of the Economist Intelligence Unit. Funding is provided by the Government of Sweden.

Key findings
DOMAIN 1. ADHERENCE TO INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS AND FULFILMENT OF MIGRANTS' RIGHTS

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas

  • In the Republic of Mauritius, children of non-citizens who hold a valid work and residence permit have access to primary, secondary and tertiary education.
  • Non-citizens in the Republic of Mauritius may access most health-care services for free.
  • Permanent residents and their spouses have unrestricted access to the labour market provided that they hold an occupation or work permit.
  • Non-citizens are eligible to participate in the national social insurance scheme, which entitles them to a disability, retirement or survivor pension.
  • Non-citizens holding an occupation permit for three years can apply for a Permanent Residence Permit.
  • Permanent residents are eligible to apply for Mauritian citizenship following a period of five years of residence.

Areas with potential for further development

  • Migrants holding a work permit cannot freely access the labour market (private or public sector), or switch employers.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Mauritius legitimizes the enactment of laws that discriminate against non-citizens according to their health status (Immigration Act (Act No. 13)) on grounds that migrants living with a disability or disease may present a threat to public safety or a burden to the taxpayer.
Key findings
DOMAIN 2: WHOLE OF GOVERNMENT APPROACH

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas

  • Coordination between government entities on migration related issues is facilitated by the National Steering Committee on Migration and Development, chaired by the Prime Minister's Officer.
  • The Passport and Immigration Office (PIO) manages border control, enforces immigration regulations and issues occupation and residence permits to applicants who wish to work and live in the Republic of Mauritius.
  • The Republic of Mauritius' Immigration Act and Non-citizens (Employment Restriction) Act are aligned with development and investment strategies.
  • Information pertaining to migration policies is easily available to foreigners interested in working in the Republic of Mauritius. Moreover, the Rodrigues Information and Support Desk was established in 2017 to provide information and support to internal migrants.

Areas with potential for further development

  • The Government of Mauritius adopted its first national migration and development policy in June 2018. The policy and its action plan are set to be implemented within a two-year time frame.

  • Although the Government has implemented the Mauritius Diaspora Scheme to attract Mauritians living abroad, there is no dedicated institution responsible for implementing the emigration policy.

Key findings
DOMAIN 3: PARTNERSHIPS

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas

  • The Republic of Mauritius cooperates with a variety of partners on migration-related platforms and is part of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) - Migration Dialogue for COMESA member states (MIDCOM).
  • A Memorandum of Understanding was signed in 2016 to facilitate movement of business people and professionals between the Republic of Mauritius, Malawi, Mozambique, Seychelles and Zambia. Moreover, the Republic of Mauritius has signed labour agreements with several countries, including China, Qatar, France, Italy and Canada.
  • The Government of the Republic of Mauritius actively collaborates with non-governmental organisations and the private sector on migration related issues.
  • The draft National Migration and Development Policy provides for the establishment of a diaspora affairs bureau under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to improve the country’s engagement with diaspora members.

Areas with potential for further development

  • The Republic of Mauritius has neither signed nor ratified several international conventions, including the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families (ICRMW), the ILO Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention of 1975 and the 2009 African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (Kampala Convention).
Key findings
DOMAIN 4: WELL-BEING OF MIGRANTS

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas

  • The Ministry of Labour, Industrial Relations, Employment and Training plays a major role in monitoring the Mauritian labour market and assessing demand and supply. It also facilitates the employment of Mauritian nationals abroad.
  • Non-citizens can access tertiary education without limitations and without having to pay additional fees. Moreover, international students may work for up to 20 hours per week.

Areas with potential for further development

  • The Republic of Mauritius does not have a defined programme managing labour migration, and the Government tends to hire foreign workers to meet the needs of the labour market on an ad hoc basis. Moreover, there is no systematic evaluation of the effects of emigration on the labour market.
  • The Republic of Mauritius is yet to participate in international schemes with common qualification frameworks, but the country is currently making efforts to implement the Southern African Development Community Qualifications Framework.
  • While no formal regulations or institutional measures have been developed to promote the ethical treatment and recruitment of migrant workers, there are certain regulations in place regarding private recruitment agencies.
Key findings
DOMAIN 5: MOBILITY DIMENSIONS OF CRISES

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas

  • The Republic of Mauritius’ National Disasters Scheme (NDS), published in 2015, has specific provisions addressing the displacement impacts of disasters.
  • Whenever a crisis becomes imminent, the Mauritian National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Centre (NDRRMC) has the responsibility to activate the National Emergency Operations Command (NEOC), which activates systems to reach the entire affected population.
  • Despite not explicitly mentioned in the NDS, migrants irrespective of their legal status, have the right to access humanitarian aid in the event of a crisis or natural disaster.

Areas with potential for further development

  • There are currently no strategies in place for addressing migratory movements caused by the adverse effects of environmental and climate change, but efforts have been made to develop a policy paper and an action plan to address this issue, in collaboration with IOM.
  • The Republic of Mauritius’ Immigration Act and the Non-citizens (Employment Restriction) Act does not include any measures that regulate the return of migrants who might leave the Republic of Mauritius during a crisis.
Key findings
DOMAIN 6: SAFE, ORDERLY AND DIGNIFIED MIGRATION

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas

  • The Passport and Immigration Office (PIO) manages border control and monitors visa overstays and enforces the country’s immigration laws (Immigration Act and the Non-citizens (Employment Restriction) Act).
  • The Government of the Republic of Mauritius has created several websites describing the available work and residence permits. An e-work permit tool, to allow users to submit work permit applications online, was piloted in 2017 and will be fully operational in 2018.
  • In 2015, the Government announced measures and proposed an incentives package to attract Mauritian diaspora members, granting them various tax and customs duty exemptions.

Areas with potential for further development

  • The Government of the Republic of Mauritius does not publish specific reports or information on its counter-trafficking activities. Information on human trafficking in the Republic of Mauritius is sourced externally from reports published by international organisations.

2017 December

Migration Governance Snapshot: The Republic of Mauritius