Indicadores de Gobernanza Migratoria (IGM)
Indicadores de Gobernanza Migratoria (IGM)

En 2015, la Organización Internacional para las Migraciones (OIM) desarrolló un Marco de Gobernanza de la Migración (MiGOF) para ayudar a los Estados a definir los elementos esenciales que constituyen la base necesaria para una “política de migración bien gestionada” a nivel nacional. El MiGOF fue bien recibido por los Estados Miembros de la OIM el mismo año. Los Indicadores de Gobernanza Migratoria (IGM) han sido desarrollados para operacionalizar el MiGOF a través de cerca de noventa indicadores agrupados en seis dimensiones claves de políticas públicas.

Haga clic en la rueda para obtener más información sobre las seis dimensiones de la gobernanza de la migración incluidas en el MiGOF y los IGM.

Los IGM son una herramienta basada en el análisis de las estructuras de la gobernanza de la migración que presenta una serie de pautas sobre los instrumentos que el Estado podría usar para desarrollar su gobernanza de la migración. Los IGM evalúan únicamente el marco institucional, jurídico y de políticas públicas en materia de migración, sin entrar a evaluar su implementación en la práctica. Los IGM funcionan como un marco de referencia que permite identificar medidas que los países podrían adoptar para fortalecer sus estructuras de gobernanza de la migración. El objetivo de los IGM es contribuir a la conversación sobre la gobernanza de la migración definiendo lo que podría ser una “política migratoria bien gestionada” en el contexto de la meta 10.7 de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS).

Para obtener más información sobre el proceso de los IGM, haga clic aquí

DERECHOS DE LOS MIGRANTES
DERECHOS DE LOS MIGRANTES

Los indicadores de este dominio analizan los derechos de los migrantes a los servicios sociales básicos, como la salud, la educación y la seguridad social. Estos también presentan los derechos de los migrantes a la reunificación familiar, al trabajo, a la residencia y a la ciudadanía. La ratificación de las principales convenciones internacionales también se incluye dentro de este dominio.

ENFOQUE DE GOBIERNO INTEGRAL
ENFOQUE DE GOBIERNO INTEGRAL

Los indicadores en este dominio evalúan los marcos institucionales, legales y regulatorios de los países relacionados con las políticas migratorias. También revisan la existencia de estrategias nacionales de migración que están en línea con el desarrollo, así como la transparencia institucional y la coherencia en relación con la gestión de la migración. Este dominio investiga en qué medida los gobiernos recopilan y usan los datos de migración. 

ALIANZAS
ALIANZAS

Este dominio se enfoca en los esfuerzos de los países para cooperar con otros Estados y con actores no gubernamentales (incluyendo organizaciones de la sociedad civil y el sector privado) en asuntos relacionados con la migración. La cooperación puede conducir a mejoras en la gobernanza al alinear y elevar los estándares, aumentar el diálogo y proporcionar estructuras para superar desafíos.

BIENESTAR SOCIOECONÓMICO DE LOS MIGRANTES
BIENESTAR SOCIOECONÓMICO DE LOS MIGRANTES

Este dominio incluye indicadores sobre las políticas de los países para gestionar el bienestar socioeconómico de los migrantes, a través de aspectos como el reconocimiento de las calificaciones educativas y profesionales de los migrantes, las disposiciones que regulan la migración estudiantil y la existencia de acuerdos laborales bilaterales entre países. Los indicadores se centran igualmente en las políticas y estrategias relacionadas con el compromiso de la diáspora y las remesas de los migrantes.

MOVILIDAD EN SITUACIONES DE CRISIS
MOVILIDAD EN SITUACIONES DE CRISIS

Este dominio estudia el tipo y el nivel de preparación de los países cuando se enfrentan a crisis de dimensiones de movilidad, vinculadas a desastres, el medio ambiente y/o conflicto. Las preguntas se utilizan para identificar los procesos vigentes para nacionales y no nacionales durante y después de un desastre, incluso si la asistencia humanitaria está igualmente disponible para los migrantes que para los ciudadanos. 

MIGRACIÓN SEGURA, ORDENADA Y REGULAR
MIGRACIÓN SEGURA, ORDENADA Y REGULAR

Este dominio analiza el enfoque de los países respecto a la gestión migratoria en términos de control fronterizo y políticas de aplicación, criterios de admisión para migrantes, preparación y resiliencia en caso de flujos migratorios significativos e inesperados, así como la lucha contra la trata de personas y el tráfico ilícito de migrantes. También evalúa los esfuerzos y los incentivos para ayudar a integrar a los ciudadanos que regresan. 

Key findings
Introduction

This country profile describes the well-developed areas of the Republic of Kazakhstan’s (hereafter Kazakhstan) migration governance structures and areas with potential for further development, as evaluated by the six domains of the Migration Governance Indicators (MGI). These address migrants’ rights, a “whole-of-government” approach, partnerships, socioeconomic well-being of migrants, the mobility dimensions of crises, and safe and orderly migration.  

Click the icons on the wheel to explore the key findings.

The Migration Governance Indicators (MGI) initiative is a policy-benchmarking programme led by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and implemented with the support of the Economist Intelligence Unit. Funding is provided by the Government of Sweden.

Key findings
Domain 1. Adherence to international standards and fulfilment of migrants' rights

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • Immigrants are guaranteed access to preschool, primary, and secondary education in public educational institutions.
  • Regular immigrants and stateless persons in Kazakhstan have the right to free medical assistance (GAFMA) in the case of acute diseases listed by the Government, unless otherwise stipulated by international agreements. 
  • There is a favourable framework for achieving long-term residency. 
  • The law on Migration of the Republic of Kazakhstan (2011) includes a family reunification procedure for permanent residents and immigrants who own a business in Kazakhstan. 
  • Since 2014 state-funded social services are available to repatriated Kazakhs, stateless persons, and foreign citizens who were victims of trafficking in the country. 

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Irregular and undocumented migrants do now have access to the health-care system beyond emergency treatment. 
  • Migrant workers are not covered by the law “On the Mandatory Social Insurance”, and are not entitled to receive social allowances. 
  • Migrants’ right to work is somewhat restricted, as they may be barred from certain labour activities.
Key findings
Domain 2: Whole of government approach

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • Kazakhstan has a set of government structures in place responsible for formulating and implementing migration policies. 
  • The country offers a coherent legal framework for migration, based on the 2011 Law on Migration. It regulates immigration, defines categories of migrants, and lays out specific immigration procedures. 
  • Kazakhstan also has agencies specifically collecting data on migration, including the Committee on Statistics, the Ministry of Interior, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Social Protection. 

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Since Kazakhstan is primarily a country of immigration, it does not currently have national legislation governing emigration. 
  • Policy coherence between different government entities could be strengthened. 
  • National mechanisms for the protection of migrants’ rights can be developed further. 
Key findings
Domain 3: Partnerships

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • Kazakhstan is a participant of the Global Forum on Migration and Development (GFMD). It is also a member state of the IOM and is actively involved in IOM-led activities. 
  • Kazakhstan is also a member of two regional consultative processes: the Almaty and the Budapest Processes. 
  • A major development in terms of labour mobility has been Kazakhstan’s membership in the Eurasian Economic Union and access to the common labour market of the Russian Federation, Belarus, the Kyrgyz Republic and Armenia.
  • Kazakhstan also has participated in a number of agreements, including the legal act of “Labour Migration in the countries of Commonwealth Independent States (CIS)”, an Agreement between Kazakhstan and Tajikistan on Labour Activity and Social Protection of Labour Migrants. 

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Engagement of the private sector and civil society organizations in migration policymaking could be strengthened to take place more regularly.
  • Kazakhstan has neither ratified nor signed the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families; neither has it ratified the ILO Migration Employment Convention (Revised) 1949, or the ILO Migrant Workers Convention (Supplementary Provisions) 1975. 
Key findings
Domain 3: Well-being of migrants

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • The Republic of Kazakhstan guarantees the protection of the rights and freedoms of migrant workers pursuant to its Constitution, laws and international agreements.
  • Kazakhstan regulates labour immigration by economic sector and region, based on demand and input from local authorities. 
  • Kazakhstan is a party to a number of international conventions on the recognition of foreign degrees.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • There is a quota for the enrolment in universities of students of ethnic Kazakh origin who are not citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
  • Few measures to promote the ethical recruitment of migrants in Kazakhstan are in place.
Key findings
Domain 5: Mobility dimensions of crises

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • Kazakh legislation extends the right to humanitarian assistance and access to emergency services to all immigrants, regardless of their legal status. 
  • The Committee for Emergency Situations within the Ministry of Interior operates a Centre for Emergency Situations and Disaster Risk Reduction in cooperation with the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Kyrgyz Republic.
  • In cases of crisis or natural disasters, Kazakh diplomatic missions are required to assist with the evacuation of their citizens. Consuls must also provide financial assistance and support for Kazakh citizens who find themselves in difficulty abroad and need to contact their families.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • There is no specific strategy in place to provide assistance to immigrants in crisis and post-crisis situations.  
  • There are no provisions in place for handling the return of emigrants who have left the country during crisis.
Key findings
DOMAIN 6: SAFE, ORDERLY AND REGULAR MIGRATION

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas:

  • While the Kazakh Border Service Academy is responsible for training members of the border service, there is also regular training on border management as part of the European Union-funded Border Management Programme in Central Asia (BOMCA) as well as regional trainings organized by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).
  • There is an Inter-Agency Committee on Combating Trafficking in Persons, which is operated on a rotational bases by the Kazakh Ministry of Labour and Social Protection, and the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
  • Kazakhstan runs a government repatriation programme for ethnic Kazaks (Oralmans) living abroad, which includes the provision of free adaptation and integration services, such as free accommodation, language lessons and assistance with employment.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • There is a lack of clear and accessible information on the different types of visas and permits available for migrants migrating to Kazakhstan. 
  • It is not yet possible to apply for visas online. 
  • With the exception of the government funded repatriation programme for ethnic Kazakhs living abroad, Kazakhstan does not have a policy incentivizing the return of its citizens living abroad. 

2018 Mayo

Migration Governance Profile: Republic of Kazakhstan