About the Migration Governance Indicators
About the Migration Governance Indicators
Migrants' rights
Migrants' rights

Indicators in this domain assess the extent to which migrants have the same status as citizens in terms of access to basic social services such as health, education, and social security. It also describes the rights of migrants to family reunification, to work, and to residency and citizenship. The ratification of the main international conventions is also included within this domain.

Whole of government approach
Whole of government approach

Indicators in this domain assess countries’ institutional, legal, and regulatory frameworks related to migration policies. Domain 2 also reviews the existence of national migration strategies that are in-line with development, as well as institutional transparency and coherence in relation to migration management. This domain also investigates the extent to which governments collect and use migration data.

Partnerships
Partnerships

This domain focuses on countries’ efforts to cooperate on migration-related issues with other states and with relevant non-governmental actors, including civil society organizations and the private sector. Cooperation can lead to improvements in governance by aligning and raising standards, increasing dialogue and providing structures to overcome challenges.

Well-being of migrants
Well-being of migrants

This domain includes indicators on countries’ policies for managing the socioeconomic well-being of migrants, through aspects such as the recognition of migrants’ educational and professional qualifications, provisions regulating student migration and the existence of bilateral labour agreements between countries. Indicators equally focus on policies and strategies related to diaspora engagement and migrant remittances.

Mobility dimensions of crises
Mobility dimensions of crises

This domain studies the type and level of preparedness of countries when they are faced with mobility dimensions of crises, linked to either disasters, the environment and/or conflict. The questions are used to identify the processes in place for nationals and non-nationals both during and after disasters, including whether humanitarian assistance is equally available to migrants as it is to citizens.

Safe, orderly and regular migration
Safe, orderly and regular migration

This domain analyses countries’ approach to migration management in terms of border control and enforcement policies, admission criteria for migrants, preparedness and resilience in the case of significant and unexpected migration flows, as well as the fight against trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants. It also assesses efforts and incentives to help integrate returning citizens.

Key findings
Introduction

This country profile describes the well-developed areas of the Republic of Ghana’s (hereafter Ghana) migration governance structures and areas with potential for further development, as evaluated by the six domains of the Migration Governance Indicators (MGI). These address migrants’ rights, a “whole-of-government” approach, partnerships, socioeconomic well-being of migrants, the mobility dimensions of crises, and safe and orderly migration.

Click the icons on the wheel to explore the key findings.

The Migration Governance Indicators (MGI) initiative is a policy-benchmarking programme led by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and implemented with the support of the Economist Intelligence Unit. Funding is provided by the Government of Sweden. 

Key findings
Domain 1. Adherence to international standards and fulfilment of migrants' rights

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • Ghana provides access to health, education and social security to all immigrants legally residing in the country; this includes refugees who are registered by the Ghana Refugee Board
  • Children in Ghana have access to public primary and secondary schools, and admission does not require a residence permit. Permanent residents can also access university education. 
  • Nationals of the “Strategies for extending social security to migrant workers and their families from and within Africa” project (MIGSEC project) countries can transfer social security benefits to their home country.
  • Ghana offers immigrants a path to permanent residency. 

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • While children of immigrants are given equal access to primary and secondary education in Ghana, this parity does not exist for tertiary education. 
  • Ghanaian labour law makes no mention of immigrants’ rights in accessing public-sector employment. 
Key findings
Domain 2: Whole of government approach

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas

  • Ghana has a well-defined national migration policy (2016) that addresses legal and regulatory aspects of migration.
  • The Immigration Act (573) of 2000, the Immigration Amendment Act (848) of 2012, and the Immigration Regulations (L.I 1691) of 2001 serve as Ghana’s primary legislation regulating immigration. Furthermore, a sound legislative framework regulates and monitors labour emigration from the country. 
  • Ghana’s Immigration Service (GIS) website is easy to understand and clearly lists the requirements for different visa categories. Web pages of agencies such as the Ministry of the Interior and the Ghana Refugee Board are also easily accessible and the information provided is user-friendly. 

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • There is still scope for overall improvement to ensure that data are updated and easily available to the public.
  • Data-sharing among the various departments managing migration in Ghana is recommended in order to avoid overlapping of work and to collect data on migrants more effectively. 
Key findings
Domain 3: Partnerships

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas:

  • Ghana has agreements in place with many countries concerning cooperation on labour migration. These include: the US-Ghana Trade and Investment Framework Agreement, and bilateral agreements with Turkey and Kenya centred on the development of partnerships in Air Services and Trade. 
  • Ghana is involved in the promotion of dialogue and cooperation on international migration at the regional level through the Migration Dialogue in West Africa (MIDWA) and the Mediterranean Transit Migration Dialogue (MTM). 
  • Ghana is part of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), which seeks to promote freedom of movement for nationals of member countries.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Where they do not already exist, treaties or memorandum of understanding could be negotiated with countries, especially with the Gulf States, where Ghanaian emigrants are employed. 
  • Ghana has not yet signed or ratified the ILO Migration for Employment Convention, 1949, nor the ILO Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) convention, 1975. It has also yet to ratify the convention on Statelessness. 
Key findings
Domain 4: Well-being of migrants

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas 

  • The National Accreditation Board is tasked with determining equivalences of diplomas and other credentials awarded within and outside of Ghana. 
  • Ghana’s National Migration Policy (2016) features remittances and development as a priority area and lists several strategies for harnessing the development potential of remittances.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Ghana’s migration policy is not oriented towards local labour market demand, and none of its primary migration agencies report on local demand for foreign labour.
  • The government does not collect information on the impact that Ghanaian emigrants have on the local labour market.
Key findings
Domain 5: Mobility dimensions of crises

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas

  • Ghana has a national strategy with specific provisions for addressing displacement in the case of disasters (National Disaster Management Plan). The country also has strategies in place to effectively manage migratory movements caused by the adverse effects of environmental and climate change. 
  • There are well-defined systems and processes in Ghana to disseminate information to the whole population, including immigrants, in times of crisis. 
  • All immigrants in Ghana have access to humanitarian aid regardless of their legal status.
  • Ghana makes exceptions to standard immigration procedures for immigrants coming from countries facing crisis. 

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • The National Migration Policy does not include specific provisions accommodating the return (or protecting the assets) of immigrants who flee the country during crises. 
  • Ghana’s National Disaster Management Plan (2010) does not include any specific provisions for assistance to immigrants living in the country. Nor does Ghana Shared Growth and Development Agenda II – 2014-2017 include measures addressing displacement. 
Key findings
DOMAIN 6: SAFE, ORDERLY AND REGULAR MIGRATION

Migration Governance: Examples of well-developed areas

  • Ghana has sound mechanisms in place to gather information on migration. The Border Patrol Unit of GIS records entries and exits at specific border points, while GIS is responsible for controlling, regulating, conditioning and monitoring the status and activities of foreigners in Ghana.
  • Ghana’s clear admission and eligibility criteria are easily accessible to potential immigrants. Forms of visa applications are accessible online. 
  • Labour laws clearly provide the framework under which Ghanaian migrant workers can be recruited for employment outside of Ghana in order to prevent human trafficking and to ensure workers’ safety abroad.
  • The Ghana Integrated Migration Management Approach (GIMMA) aims to strengthen the Government’s migration management efforts through enhanced border management and strengthened data collection mechanisms.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • There is scope to improve oversight and regulation of private employment agencies recruiting Ghanaians to work abroad to ensure that illegal recruitment activities are not operating in the country.

2018 May

Migration Governance Profile: Republic of Ghana