Migrant recruitment costs
Most low-skilled labour migrants pay fees to obtain contracts and complete recruitment formalities. This is against international conventions and many countries’ national laws that require employers to pay all of the costs associated with the recruitment of foreign workers. As recruitment costs are often high and lack transparency, the international community is striving to reduce them by introducing increased regulation and monitoring practices, educating migrants about their rights, and increasing cooperation between origin and destination countries. Reducing recruitment costs has the potential to benefit employers, migrants and migrants’ families alike, while also encouraging more regular migration (Ratha, 2014). Data on recruitment costs have only started to be collected in recent years and a global database does not yet exist.
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development recognizes for the first time the contribution of migration to sustainable development. Migration is a cross-cutting issue, relevant to all of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). 11 out of 17 goals contain targets and indicators that are relevant to migration or mobility. The Agenda's core principle to "leave no one behind", including migrants, requires data disaggregation by migratory status, opening up significant migration data needs but also the opportunity to improve migration data.
Remittances, usually understood as the money or goods that migrants send back to families and friends in origin countries, are often the most direct and well-known link between migration and development. Remittances exceed official development aid but are private funds. Global estimates of financial transfers by migrants include transactions beyond what are commonly assumed to be remittances, as the statistical definition used for the collection of data on remittances is broader (see IMF, 2009). Also, such estimates do not cover informal transfers. Remittances can also be of social nature, such as the ideas, behaviour, identities, social capital and knowledge that migrants acquire during their residence in another part of the country or abroad, that can be transferred to communities of origin (Levitt, 1998: 927).
MIGRATION DATA FOR THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (SDGs)
Migration in the SDGs The SDGs’ central reference to migration is made in target 10.7 to facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies, which appears under Goal 10 to reduce
SDG 13: CLIMATE ACTION
Migration-relevant SDG targets and indicators: Target 13.b Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities
SDG 11: SUSTAINABLE CITIES AND COMMUNITIES
Migration-relevant SDG targets and indicators: Target 11.1 By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums Star Star Star Indicator: 11.1.1 Proportion of urban population living in slums, informal settlements or inadequate housing
SDG 17: PARTNERSHIPS FOR THE GOALS
Migration-relevant SDG targets and indicators: Target 17.3 Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources Indicator: 17.3.2 Volume of remittances (in United States dollars) as a proportion of total GDP Target 17.18 By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to
Leaving no one behind — Disaggregating census data by migration status through IPUMS
The 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda calls for United Nations (UN) Member States to “leave no one behind” as they work toward meeting targets in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). To ensure that migrants are not left behind, countries need data disaggregated by migratory status. Censuses are statistically robust sources for such data. However, census data are often not harmonized and census reports often do not disaggregate statistics by migrant status. The Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) International project harmonizes and integrates census data, including data on migrants. Kristen Jeffers, Senior Data Analyst, describes IPUMS and the potential it holds for monitoring the SDGs and assessing whether and to what degree migrants are left behind. (This blog is based on a pilot study on disaggregating SDG indicators by migratory status.)